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9. AZOJETE 14(2) 244-248.pdf

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   Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):244-248 Copyright © Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Print ISSN: 1596-2490, Electronic ISSN: 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng   COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GASOLINE PRODUCED FROM LOCALLYMADE REFINERY IN THE NIGER DELTA CREEKS AND GOVERNMENT OWNED PETROLEUM REFINING COMPANY IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA Peretomode, J. E. (Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Delta State University, Abraka, P. M. B. 22, Oleh Campus, Nigeria.) Corresponding author’s email :  peretomodejeffery7@gmail.com  Abstract This study investigates some physicochemical properties of gasoline obtained from a locally-made refinery prevalent in the Niger Delta region and compares its properties with a government owned public refinery. The results showed that, copper corrosion values ranged from class 1a to class 1b (slightly tarnish), specific gravity ranged from 0.76 to 0.77, Reid Vapor Pressure ranged from 0.37 psi to 0.41 psi while Atmospheric distillation ranged from 203 ° C to 212 ° C. The data of this investigation reveal that most of the products are within the standard and fit for usage. Regardless of the tremendous result obtained from the aforementioned analysis, a performance test was carried out on the samples by using it to power a one stroke internal combustion engine: it was observed that the locally (illegally) produced gasoline burns at a pressure lower than the referenced sample, this is because, the locally produced gasoline contains slight traces of kerosene. Keywords: Physicochemical Properties; Gasoline; Specific gravity; Atmospheric distillation   1.   Introduction Gasoline is obtained from crude oil through blending of atmospheric distillation naphtha and  products from other complex refinery processes (Faruq et al, 2012). With the advent of the internal combustion engine, production of gasoline has dominated the refining processes (Faruq et al  , 2012). This is because the quantities of gasoline obtainable from distillation alone were insufficient to satisfy consumer demand. Therefore, to meet the gasoline demand some  petroleum fractions must be converted to gasoline by processes like Cracking, Hydro processing, Alkylation and catalytic reforming (Handwerk, 2001). Gasoline, popularly called petrol or fuel in Nigeria is a derivative of fractional distillation of crude oil with boiling temperature ranging from 40-200 °C, consisting of 5 to 12 carbon atoms in a complex mixture of hydrocarbon with its usual composition (% volume): 4-8% alkanes; 2-5% alkenes; 25-40% iso-alkanes; 3-7% cyclo-akanes; 1-4% cyclo-alkenes; and 20-50% total aromatics (0.5-2.5% benzene) (Hoekman, 1992). At the end of the production process, finished gasoline typically contains more than 150 separate compounds, although, as many as 1,000 compounds have been identify in some blends (Hoekman, 1992). Hence, in spite of the fact that gasoline is solely used in internal combustion engine, its chemical composition varies depending on the crude oil used, the refinery processes available, the overall balance of product demand and the product specifications. The advent of locally produced gasoline has provided an alternative to remedy the situation of fuel scarcity due to low production capacities of our refineries.   Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):244-248. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng  245 Locally produced gasoline is fast becoming an alternative to the premium-motor-spirit within the  Niger Delta area, especially in the riverine communities. The locally produced petrol is not tested to certify its correspondence to any set parameters; which endangers the lives of everyone that uses, transport, and sell the product. Two methods by which gasoline can be produced locally include;    The Drum method which uses two drums and is roughly estimated to about 240 liters of crude per cooking. This crude oil is cooked by mounting the drum section above a pit containing bitumen, the bitumen is used as fuel to produce the heat necessary for the required fractionation. Fractionation of gasoline from the mixture begins within 15-20mins of cooking the crude oil, the volume of gasoline gotten from this method varies within 30-45 liters, this variability is dependent on the type of crude oil used as raw material.    The tank method is very much like the drum method except in capacity and time required to complete the process. The volume of crude oil used varies within 50-55 drums, which in-turn yields about 5-8 drums of gasoline depending on the type of crude oil used as raw material. The aim of this study is to examine some physicochemical properties of gasoline obtained from a locally-made refinery prevalent in the Niger Delta region and compare its properties with a government owned public refinery, as a detailed hydrocarbon analysis is of great importance in the processing of naphtha’s or gasoline (Siu etal, 1994). This study will help to clarify and give a good understanding as to whether the locally produced gasoline is fit or not for usage and to suggest possible solution to remedy its short-comings. To achieve the aim of this study, the following properties of locally produced gasoline such as the specific gravity, atmospheric distillation, Reid vapour pressure, and copper corrosion is investigated and compared to the government owned public refinery. 2.   Materials And Method Four samples of locally produced gasoline were collected randomly and analyzed to determine the quality of these samples. The WRPC set parameters was used as reference standard and all samples were analyzed according to the ASTM test method.  Apparatus    Reid vapor pressure (K11450 Reid Vapor Pressure Bath, 4-Unit )    Koehler K45000 / K45090    Copper corrosion apparatus (K25310 copper strip corrosion test bomb bath)    ASTM D86  –   Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure  2.1 Determination of specific gravity    A 100ml measuring cylinder was properly washed and blown dry. It was then filled with the sample to be analyzed. The hydrometer was inserted and allowed to come to rest floating freely away from the walls and bottom of the cylinder and the specific gravity value was read directly from the calibration of the hydrometer. A thermometer submerged into the measuring cylinder was used to stir samples and its reading noted to obtain the temperature of the samples. The temperature values are converted into ° F to obtain the correct specific gravity (SG).  Peretomode.: Comparative analysis of the physicochemical properties of gasoline produced from locally made refinery in the Niger delta creeks and government owned petroleum refining company in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):244-248 ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng  246  2.2 Determination of Reid Vapor Pressures (RVP) The liquid chamber of the RVP kits apparatus was filled with a 50ml gasoline sample that has  been adjusted to a temperature of38 ° C and the liquid chamber was connected to the vapor chamber fitted with a pressure gauge. The entire assembly was immersed in the water bath of adjusted temperature of 38 ° C. After thirty minutes (30mins), the assembly was removed, shaken and the pressure gauge was read. The procedure was repeated until two successive readings are within 2.6kPa.  2.3 Atmospheric distillation  ASTM D86  –   Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure A 100ml fuel sample is placed in a round-bottom flask and heated at a controlled rate till evaporation. The temperature is recorded when the first drop of condensate falls from the lower end of the condenser tube into the receiving cylinder (the initial boiling point). The distillation was continued and the temperatures at 70 ° C, 125 ° C, 180 ° C and temperature at the end of the test (end point/final boiling point of distillate)was recorded.  2.4 Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness of Copper using Copper Strip Test Procedure The Copper Strip test assesses the relative degree of corrosiveness of petroleum products. A  polished copper strip is immersed in 30ml of sample at elevated temperature. After the test  period, the strip is examined for evidence of corrosion and a classification number from 1-4 is assigned based on a comparison with the ASTM Copper Strip Corrosion Standards. 3.   Results and Discussion Gasoline is a refined product of petroleum consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons, additives, and blending agents. The composition of gasoline varies widely, depending on the crude oils used, the refinery processes available, the overall balance of product demand, and the product specifications. Physicochemical properties of a locally-made gasoline was measured and compared with the results of a government owned refinery. The properties investigated include appearance, free water, specific gravity, distillate evaporate, end boiling point, copper corrosion and Reid vapor pressure test, atmospheric distillation, copper corrosion of illegally refined gasoline. The data of the analysis are presented in Table 1.   Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):244-248. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng  247 Table 1: Warri Refinery petroleum company standard for gasoline and results for Sample 1, 2, 3 and 4   Parameters WRPC set Standard Results Obtained Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Appearance Clear and Bright Clear and Bright Clear and Bright Clear and Bright Clear and Bright Free Water Nill Nil Nil Nil Nil Specific gravity at 15/15 ° C 0.720  –  0.770 0.761 0.74 0.764 0.78 Distillate Evaporate at: 70 ° C, % (viv), max. 10 <10 <10 <10 >10 125 ° C, % (viv), max. 50 58 48 46 53 180 ° C, % (viv), max. 90 92 84 88 94 End Boiling Point, ° C, (max) 210 205 202 208 212 Copper corrosion, 3h at 50 ° C (max) Class 1b Class 1a Class 1a Class 1a Class 1a Reid Vapor Pressure, kPa (max) 62.0 (9 psi) 2.41(0.35psi) 2.62(0.38 psi) 2.55(0.37psi) 2.76(0.40psi) Table 1 above shows the result of investigated properties which include appearance, free water, specific gravity, distillate evaporate, end boiling point, copper corrosion and Reid vapor pressure test, atmospheric distillation, copper corrosion of locally refined gasoline. The specific gravity results arrived at after the experiment has been shown to exhibit properties of a light crude as a raw material, given the fact that most of the samples tested were within the range stipulated by the reference standard, the result obtained from the four samples that was tested exhibit very slight differences. The RVP and distillation result Indicates the presence of kerosene in the sample: which accounts for the low vapor pressure and the excess evaporate at specific temperatures regardless of the end boiling point. However, the low corrosiveness to copper is as a result of minute hydrogen sulphide in the feedstock used. In other to achieve the aim of this work, the major objective was to examine some  physicochemical properties of gasoline obtained from a locally-made refinery prevalent in the  Niger Delta region and compare its properties with a government owned public refinery, from the experimental results, it can be inferred that; the vapor pressure at which the locally produced gasoline burns (0.35, 0.38, 0.37, 0.40psi for samples 1,2,3,4 respectively), is lower than that of the referenced standard (9psi).The energy generated when used to power an internal combustion engine is lower, compared to the referenced standard. The results of this research reveal that most of the products are within the standard. In order to improve the quality and performance of the locally produced gasoline, the crude used as raw material should be blended with additives in order to enable the fractions to specifications. Because of the limited processing unit available to the local refiner, the following additives c: xylene, toluene, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) could be blended with the crude oil before fractionation. A specific gravity sensor should be inst alled at the fraction’s outlet to avoid mixture of different fractions.    Peretomode.: Comparative analysis of the physicochemical properties of gasoline produced from locally made refinery in the Niger delta creeks and government owned petroleum refining company in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):244-248 ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng  248 4.   Conclusion From the results obtained it can generally be concluded that locally refining gasoline in the riverine communities in the Niger Delta should be encouraged as it has prospect and the technology if adopted, modified and developed by government. It can be very useful for the  production of commercial gasoline in no-distant future as this will help curb or remedy the frequent fuel scarcity and high cost of the product due to low production capacities of our Government owned refineries. 5.   References   ASTM D130  –   12. Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products  by Copper Strip Test.   Faruq, UZ., Runde, M., Danshehu, BG., Yahaya, HN., Zuru, AA. and Muhammad, AB. 2012. Comparative Studies of Gasoline Samples Used in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 20(2): 87-92   Hoekman, SK. 1992. Speculated Measurements and Calculated Reactivities of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions from Conventional and Reformulated Gasolines. Environmental Science Technology, 26: 1206-1216 Handwerk, GE. 2001. Petroleum Refining Technology 1st edition. Marcel Dekka, New York, pp 83-91 Hoekman, SK. 1992. Speciated Measurements and Calculated Reactivities of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions from Conventional and Reformulated Gasoline. Environmental Science Technology, 26: 1206-1216. Siu TT., Anthony DW. and Kjell Urdal. 1994. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasoline by GC ‐ MS (SI ‐ PIONA). Journal of high resolution Chromatography 17(6):469 - 475
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