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A Child Acquires Any Natural Languages Within a Few Years

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  A child acquires any natural languages within a few years, without the aid of analytical thinking and without explicit “grammar” instruction as taught in school. Sakai (2005:815) thus, ascribes the srcin of grammatical rules to an innate system in the human brain. Important aspects of language are not acquired from experience; they are already present in the mind (Cook & Newson 1996:102). This is consistent with Chomsky’s theory of Universal Grammar (UG) which claims that humans are innately endowed with universal language-specific knowledge (Chomsky 1977:2, 63). The concept of UG was resorted to because it was believed that children could not learn their first language so quickly and effortlessly without the help of an innate language faculty to guide them (Mitchell & Myles 2004:55). All human beings share part of their knowledge of language; UG is their common possession regardless of which language they speak (Cook & Newson 1996:1-2). Linguists regard speaking, signing, and language comprehension as primary faculties of language, that is, innate or inherent and biologically determined, whereas they regard reading and writing as secondary abilities (Sakai 2005:815). The above description implies that L1 is acquired during the first years of life through such primary faculties while children are rapidly expanding their linguistic knowledge. In contrast, reading and writing are learned with much conscious effort and repetition, usually at school. This ability may be influenced by cultural rather than biological factors. Cook and Newson (1996:104) elucidate Chomsky’s Universal Grammar when they maintain that “acquiring English means discovering how it fleshes out the properties of UG which are already  present”. Furthermore, Saville -Troike (2006:18) also adopts a Chomskyan stance of Universal Grammar when she argues that the initial state of L1 learning is composed solely of an innate capacity for language acquisition which may or may not continue to be available for L2, or may be available only in some limited ways. In addition, Mc Gilvray (2005:117) encapsulates the theory of UG by emphasising that learners acquire a grammar of the language and that the cognitive principles which learners employ is a set of universal principles collectively called Universal Grammar. Saville-Troike (2006:2) maintains that second language acquisition (SLA) refers to both the study of individuals and groups who are learning a language subsequent to learning their first one as children, and to the process of learning that language. The additional language is called a “second language” (L2), even though it may actually be the third, fourth, or tenth to be acquired. It is also commonly called a “target language” (TL), which refers to any language that is the aim or goal of learning (Saville-Troike 2006:2). Ellis (2000:3) defines SLA as a way in which people learn a language other than their primary language, inside or outside of the classroom. According the traditional definition, SLA takes place in a setting in which the language to be learned is the language spoken in the local community (De Bot, Lowie & Verspoor 2005:7). Therefore, for example, an IsiZulu speaker learning English in an English medium school is generally referred to as a second language learner. Although there are a variety of approaches to SLA, the literature review will focus on Cummins’s Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis, Krashen’s Monitor Model, the Dynamic Systems Theory, and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of the Mind. These approaches, to the researcher’ s knowledge, were found to have caused much concern and debate among linguists and researchers. Some approaches will be complementary and some contrasting. 2.3.1 Indonesian Chinese Indonesian Chinese are an overseas Chinese group whose ancestors emigrated from China to Indonesia through commercial activities. Ancestors of the Chinese Indonesian migrate  in waves for thousands of years ago. Their role appears several times in the history of Indonesia, even before the Republic of Indonesia declared and established. The records of China stated that the ancient kingdom in the archipelago has been closely linked with the ruling dynasties in China. It is the factor which then fosters trade and traffic of goods and people from China to the archipelago and vice versa. Maritime trade drove early migration patterns of the Chinese into the Malay Archipelago, in addition to the 1293 Mongol invasion of the island of Java and expeditions led by mariner Zheng He in the 15th century. The bustling interaction trade in southeast China's coastal areas is causing a lot of people who also feel the need to sail out to trade. The main goal at the time was Southeast Asia. Because shipping is very dependent on the monsoons, then every year the traders will settle in the territories of Southeast Asia who visited them. So forth any merchant who decides to settle down and marry local women, there are also traders who returned to China to keep trading. When European explorers began arriving in Southeast Asia in the 16th and 17th centuries, they established ports of trade in the region and began interacting with Chinese traders and merchants who were already present. After the Dutch East India Company established Batavia (now the capital city of Jakarta) as its headquarters on Java in 1609, it became a hub of trade between China and India. In order to expand their colony, the Dutch contracted laborers from the Fujian and Guangdong regions of southern China. For the next 300 years, members of the Hakkien, Hakka, Teochew, and Cantonese ethnic groups entered the Dutch East Indies as construction and plantation workers, miners, and artisans. Emigrant communities emerged in more industrialized nations beginning in the second half of the 20th century. In general, the ethnic Chinese are more urbanized than the  indigenous  pribumi   population, though significant rural and agricultural communities also exist outside the main islands. Indonesian Chinese (commonly referred to as orang Cina , Tionghoa, or Peranakan Cina ) in Indonesia is one of the ethnic in Indonesia. Usually they call themselves by the term Tenglang (Hokkien), Tengnang (Tiochiu), or Thongnyin (Hakka). In Mandarin they are called Tangren (Hanzi: Tang people). This is consistent with the fact that the Chinese-majority Indonesia came from southern China who refer to themselves as Tang people, while the northern Chinese refer to themselves as Han people. Nearly all Chinese Indonesians are either patrilineal descendants of these early immigrants or new immigrants born in mainland China.   Most of the Chinese people in Indonesia settled on the island of Java. Other areas where they also settled in large numbers than in urban areas are: North Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung, South Sumatra, Lampung, Lombok, West Kalimantan, Banjarmasin, and some places in South Sulawesi and North Sulawesi. Indonesia's 2000 census reported more than 2.4 million self identified ethnic Chinese citizens, or 1.2 percent of the country's population at the time. Although the number of Chinese society is less than population groups of   pribumi  , their presence as citizens of the city of Medan, North Sumatra will be easily characterized, namely by looking at Chinese characters displayed to their residence, that is, in almost all shopping centers and along roads in the city are the houses where they lived and also where they opened their business. In addition to those who always receipts Hokkien dialect as a language in everyday conversation among themselves, in the midst of other residents. In line with the situation in China itself, the Chinese community in Medan and North Sumatra is also composed of various tribes, but in a state of everyday tribal issues are not prominent. So there  is only one entity in a civilized society which is not one faction of the ethnic ties that are organized in a single organizational structure as the common case, except social groups in terms of religion and death. 2.3.2 Hokkien Dialect 2.3 Children’s Mother Tongue   2.3 Language Acquisition **** The term 'acquisition' whose verb is to acquire srcinally means to come into possession or control of often by unspecified means (Meriam Webster Dictionary). Clark (2003:409) stated that within acquisition, researchers need to account for both continuity and change in what children knows about their language. Krashen (1990: 112) made a distinction between acquisition termed as language knowledge that develops incidentally as learners focus on meaning in comprehensible input and learning termed as knowledge about language gained through formal instruction or met linguistic analysis. Further to the difference between learning and acquisition is that learning is taken as conscious process (e.g: classroom) of attaining a language usually from a classroom where a teacher holds most of the roles while acquiring is regarded as unconscious process of attaining a language learning is through tutoring while acquiring is through nurturing. **** Language acquisition followers led by Krashen have even conducted a research supporting their comprehensible input. In support to this theory Block (2003: 94) reviewing several studies in which young L2 learners read or were read to in the target language. The findings consistently showed that students who had access to more reading activities learned more of the second language than student in audio lingual instruction. Moreover, he said that it is a subconscious process. Language on the other
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