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A History of the Theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems and its Appliations to Medical Philosophy and Diagnosis.pdf

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A History of the Theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems and its Applications to Medical Philosophy and Diagnosis Rudolf Seising Visiting Researcher at the European Centre for Soft Computing, Mieres, Asturias (Spain) College lecturer in the faculty of History and Arts, Institute of History of Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany) In 1965, Lotfi Zadeh, a professor of electri- cal engineering at the University of Cali- fornia in Berkeley, published the first o
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  A History of the Theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems and its Applications to Medical Philosophy and Diagnosis  Rudolf Seising Visiting Researcher at the European Centre for Soft Computing,  Mieres, Asturias (Spain) College lecturer in the faculty of History and Arts,  Institute of History of Sciences,  Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany)   In 1965, Lotfi Zadeh, a professor of electri-cal engineering at the University of Cali-fornia in Berkeley, published the first of his  papers on his new theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems. Since the 1980s, this mathema-tical theory of “unsharp amounts” has been applied with great success in many different fields. Thanks not least of all too extensive advertising campaigns for fuzzy-controlled household appliances and to their promi-nent presence in the media, first in Japan and then in other countries, the word “fuzzy” has also become very well-known among non-scientists. On the other hand, the story of how Fuzzy Set Theory and its earliest applications srcinated has re-mained largely unknown. In this lecture, the history of the theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems and the ways it was first used are incorporated into the history of 20th century science and technology. Influences from System theory, Cybernetics and Information Theory stem-ming from the earliest part of the 20th cen-tury are considered alongside those of communication and control theory from mid-century. The second part of this lecture delineates a relatively unknown path in the history of medical philosophy and medical diagnosis. It is concerned with the phenomenon of vagueness in the physician’s “style of thinking” and with the use of fuzzy sets with a view to create a model of such reasoning when  physicians make a diagnosis. It represents specific features of medical ways of thinking that were mentioned by the Polish physician and philosopher Ludwik Fleck in 1926. Some proposals to apply fuzzy sets in medicine were based on a suggestion made by Zadeh: symptoms and diseases are fuzzy in nature and fuzzy sets are feasible to represent these entity classes of medical knowledge. Yet other attempts to use fuzzy sets in medicine were self-contained. The use of this approach contributed to medical decision-making and the development of computer-assisted diagnosis in medicine.  Biographical sketch Rudolf Seising, born 1961 in Duisburg, Germany, received an MS degree in mathematics from the Ruhr University of Bochum in 1986, a PhD degree in philosophy of science from the Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) of Munich in 1995, and a postdoctoral lecture qualification (PD) in history of science from the LMU of Munich in 2004. He has been scientific assistant for computer sciences at the University of the Armed Forces in Munich from 1988 to 1995 and scientific assistant for history of sciences at the same university from 1995 to 2002. From 2002 to 2008 he was scientific assistant in the Core unit for medical statistics and informatics at the University Vienna Medical School, which in 2004 became the Medical University of Vienna. Since 2005 he is also college lecturer in the faculty of History and Arts, Institute of History of Sciences, at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. From April to September 2008 was acting as a professor (substitute) for the history of science at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. He has been visiting scholar at the University of California at Berkeley in 2000, 2001 and 2002 and at the University of Turku, Finland in 2008. Since January 2009 he is Visiting Researcher at the European Centre for Soft Computing in Mieres, Spain. Rudolf Seising is Chairman of the IFSA Special Interest Group on History of Fuzzy Sets - IFSA SIG History and of the EUSFLAT Working Group Philosophical Foundations . He is the author of the book The Fuzzification of Systems. The Genesis of Fuzzy Set Theory and its Initial Applications    Developments up to the 1970s  (Springer-Verlag 2007) and the editor of the Views on Fuzzy Sets and Systems from Different Perspectives. Philosophy and Logic, Criticisims and Applications. (Springer-Verlag 2009). Rudolf Seising teaches the philosophy and history of science, technology, and medicine, and especially the history of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing.
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