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A New Document of the Last Pagan Revival in the West, 393-394 a.D.

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  A New Document of the Last Pagan Revival in the West, 393-394 A.D. Herbert Bloch The Harvard Theological Review , Vol. 38, No. 4. (Oct., 1945), pp. 199-244. Stable URL: The Harvard Theological Review  is currently published by Cambridge University Press and Harvard Divinity School.Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content inthe JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers,and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community takeadvantage of advances in technology. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact Sep 21 08:44:01 2007  HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW VOLUME XXXMII OCTOBER 1945 NUMBEE 4 A NEW DOCUMENT OF THE LAST PAGAN REVIVAL IN THE WEST, 393-394 A.D.' HERBERT BLOCH DURING he summer of 1938 an important discovery was made in Ostia. In the area at the west of the magnificent Horrea Epagathiana was excavated a temple dedicated to Hercules Invictus according to an altar set in its pr~naos.~ lthough inscriptions and works of art referring to Hercules had come to light in Ostia before, these findings in themselves were not sufficient evidence to indicate the existence of an important cult of Hercules in Ostia. So the discovery of a large temple of Hercules came as a complete surprise. The podium of the temple is well enough preserved to es- tablish beyond any doubt the date of the original structure. It belongs to the age of S~lla,~ n which also the grandiose sanctuary of Hercules Invictus in Tivoli and the more modest temple of the same god in Cori were built; it is contemporary with the temples of Fortuna Primigenia in Palestrina and of Juppiter Anxur in Terracina. It was built then after the port of Ostia had been devastated by the revengeful Marius upon his return in 87 B c ~ I wish to express my appreciation to Professor Guido Calza Director of the ex- cavations at Ostia for having allowed me to publish and discuss the inscription of Numerius Proiectus in this periodical and to Professor Arthur D. Nock for many helpful suggestions. First official notice of the discovery was given by G. Calza Gnomon XI11 (1938), 606 f and Le Arti I (1939), 388 f.; cf. G. Becatti I1 culto di Ercole ad Ostia ed un nuovo rilievo votivo Bull. della Comm. Archeol. Com. LXVII (1939), 37 ff A. W. Van Buren Am. J Arch. XLIII (1939), 515, fig. 8 H. Fuhrmann Arch. Anz. LV (1940), 425 ff They are all collected by Lily R. Taylor The Cults of Ostia 1912, 36 f.; cf. Becatti loc. cit. 37 f Becatti loc. cit. 39. 6 Also the city walls of Ostia go back to Sulla.  9 HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEIT Beyond the podium nothing remains of the Republican period. Possible traces of repairs may be attributed to the first half of the first century of our era. But what of the walls still stands srcinated in the time of Trajan when almost the whole quarter in which the temple is situated was rebuilt, probably after one of the destructive fires which were so frequent in the history of ancient ~ities.~ The inscription on the altar says: DEO INVICTO HERCVLI HOSTILIVS ANTIPATER .V.P.PRAEF.ANN. CVRAT RE1   PVBLIC OST Deo Inuicto Herculi, Hostilius Antipater, v ir) ~ erfectissimus), raef ectu8) ann onae), curat or) rei public ae) Ost iensis) 7 Since the altar had previously been used as the base of a statue of P. Flavius Priscus, a dignitary of the time of Gallienus, the terminus post quem for the inscription of Hostilius Antipater is the year of Gallienus death 268 A.D.,* lthough it is likely that the base was not used again immediately after this date. On the other hand, vir perfectissirnus as title of the praefectus annonae was replaced by uir clarissimus apparently during the reign of Constantine the Great: the praefecfus annonae Aurelius Victorianus calls himself a. p. in an inscription in honor of Con- stantine erected soon after the battle of Saxa Rubra 312 A.D.; CILXIV 131 Dessau, ILS 687), while L. Crepereius Mada- lianus, who held office sometime between Constantine s death, In a test below the pavement of the cella made in January 1939 a broken roof tile was discovered with the stamp of L. Flavius Philippus CII XV 1 1154 b whose stamps have been found in the first ship of Nemi. He worked therefore in the time of Caligula and Claudius. However the nature of the discovery of the stamped brick does not preclude the possibility that it was used as second-hand material. The restora- tion in the time of Trajan is certain for in the remains of the walls of the cella the brickstamp CIL XV 1 60 was found in s tu which is one of the characteristic stamps of the Bath of Trajan. The inscription has been briefly transcribed b? Calza Le Arti I 388 and by Becatti loc. cit. 39. 8 The mutilated inscription of P. Flavius Priscus is hitherto unpublished; since it does not contribute to the problem here discussed its publication will be reserved to another place. On Flavius Priscus patronus colonioe Ostiensis, cf. CIL XIV I 4452 5535 5340.
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