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A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF INTEGRATION OF MATERNAL, NEWBORN AND CHILD HEALTH (MNCH) INTO AIDS, TUBERCULOSIS AND MALARIA (ATM) IN TANZANIA, Policies, Strategies and Financing Dar es Salaam October 2012 This Report of MNCH/ATM integration has been prepared by: Human Development Trust P O BOX Dar es Salaam Tanzania Under financial support from Population Action International (PAI) Human Development Trust (HDT) October 2012 Title: A Report on the status of Integration of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) into AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (ATM) in Tanzania ISBN: Table of Contents ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES GLOSSARY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY III IV IV V VI VII A: Introduction 1 B: Goal and Objectives of the Assessment 4 CHAPTER 1: MNCH POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND INTERVENTIONS MNCH in Policies and Strategies MNCH integration at Policy level: 12 CHAPTER 2: MNCH BUDGET ANALYSIS Macro-Budget Analysis Health Sector Financing Financing for Maternal Newborn and Child Health Functional Classification of MNCH Budget Conclusions: 20 CHAPTER 3: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Discussions: Recommendations 22 ANNEX: MNCH TARGETS FROM DIFFERENT NATIONAL DOCUMENTS REFERENCES 25 II Abbreviations & Acronyms AMREF ANC ATM ARV BEmONC CEmONC CTC EID EmONC EPI FDC HBB IMCI IPT ITN MDG MMAM NSGPR PHSDP PMI MNCH SMI Africa Medical Research Foundation Ante Natal Clinic AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Anti-Retroviral drugs Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Comprehensive Obstetric and Newborn Care Care and Treatment Clinic Early Infants Diagnosis Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Expanded Program for Immunization Fixed Dose Combination Help Babies Breath Integrated Management of childhood Illness Intermittent Preventive Treatment Insecticide Treated Nets Millennium Development Goal Mpango wa Maendeleo ya Afya ya Msingi National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction Primary Health Services Development Program President Malaria Initiative Maternal and Newborn Child Health Safe Motherhood Initiatives III List of Tables Table 1: Interventions classified as MNCH 3 Table 2: Areas of MNCH per budget allocation 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Percentage utilization of MNCH integrated services 2 Figure 2: Percentage of health sector spending in Tanzania 15 Figure 3: Spending on Reproductive Health (MNCH); On budget Tsh-Bln 16 Figure 4: Malaria and MNCH budget including off-budget; Tsh Biln 17 Figure 5: Functional spending on MNCH in Tsh. Bln 19 IV Glossary 1. Budget classification: the way the budget is broken down to show by whom, or on what, the money will be spent. Common classifications include: i) Administrative, which is defined in terms of who will spend the money e.g. government departments or regions ii) Functional, presented in terms of what the money will be spent on e.g. on EPI or Family planning. 2. Consolidated debt services (CDS): are debts that the country has accumulated through overseas loans, which are required to be repayed within a certain period of time. Each year the government allocates a certain amount of money to service its debts. 3. Discretionary expenditure: Refers to the funds available to be spent by government after paying consolidated debt services. 4. Nominal values: the actual value of money, disregarding inflation. 5. Real values: the value of money taking the inflation index into consideration. 6. Recurrent spending: spending on wages, salaries, operations and maintenance that is not of an investment nature. 7. Development expenditure: Spending that involves investment in new services, skills, beneficiaries or programmes or a significant scale-up of ongoing activities. 8. Off-budget: This refers to the expenditure that is not captured under Government s own budget system (Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) but the government knows how much is being spent and for what. On budget is therefore that which is captured in Government budget and is approved by the parliament. V Acknowledgement HDT wishes to thank the Population action International (PAI) through The Integration Partnership Project (TIP) for the opportunity to be part of advocacy work for integration of MNCH and ATM services in Tanzania. Moreover, we would like to thank the RCH department of the Ministry of Health and Social welfare for their support during review of policies and strategies that addresses MNCH. The technical support from Director of Programs Mr. Simon Malanilo is appreciated. Equally important is the policy review and support from the Head of Monitoring and Evaluation, Mrs. Annamarie Wimana Mpanda and final review by the Executive Director for HDT, Dr. Peter Bujari. James Mlali, head of Advocacy section is appreciated for his guidance and support throughout this work. Last but not least we thank all those who have participated in the assessment and all HDT staff who in one way or another helped this Report to reach you. Jaliath Rangi Program Officer Human Development Trust P.O. Box 65147, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. VI Executive Summary The main objective of conducting this Rapid Assessment was to understand the policy context, programming and financing of MNCH in Tanzania and how the services are integrated in ATM. This was accomplished by undertaking policy review and budget analysis for MNCH. The results will be used to influence enforcement of MNCH policies and enhance integration of MNCH into AIDS, TB and Malaria. The assessment will also be useful to advocate for increased resource allocation for integrated MNCH services from both donors and Government s own funds. Literature review indicates that, Tanzania has prioritized Maternal, Newborn and Child Health in its policies and strategies in order to meet MDG 4 and 5 through provision of free primary health care services to pregnant women and children aged below five years. This prioritization ranges from development policies such as MKUKUTA and the recent Five Years Development Plan. The Health Policy and Health Sector Development Plan (III) both prioritize MNCH. Specifically, the National Road Map Strategic Plan (One Plan) stipulates various strategies to guide stakeholders to meet the MDGs target, but the two policies do not specify integration. The Health Sector Strategic Plan III ( ) focuses on partnership for delivering the MDGs through two major programs: Primary Health Services Development Program (PHSDP or MMAM in Swahili) and the Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan. National policies for MNCH commit to ensure fair, equitable and quality services to the community. An analysis of financing for MNCH indicates that the health sector share has been decreasing for years; it peaked in year 2007 at 10.8% then declined and now (2011/12) stands at 8.9% of the total national budget including consolidated fund. In year 2011/12, the government of Tanzania s budget increased by 16.6% from the previous year, but MNCH budget decreased from billion to 98.7 billion for year 2011/12. This decrease was mainly due to ending of universal coverage for ITN and is likely to affect attainment of the targets set in national targets for MNCH (see annex). In conclusion, the analysis indicates that, there are policies and strategies developed to address maternal and child health even though they VII don t spell out integration. MNCH is integrated mostly in HIV and Malaria interventions, but not in TB. Because of MNCH integration to HIV, when a pregnant mother is found to be HIV positive, she is referred to a TB clinic. Financial resources available have not increased, and have mostly been coming from donors, with the trend of meeting the targets not matching the needs towards achieving the MDGs. Clarity of integration at policy level is needed and reasonable financing for MNCH to meet MDG targets. Integration in TB is needed in order to address childhood TB. VIII A: Introduction Three years remain to assess the extent to which countries have met the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Global Fund Board Decision Point: GF/B22/DP15 encouraged countries, where applicable, to strengthen the MNCH content of their Global Fundsupported investments, maximizing existing flexibilities for integrated programming. To exemplify that GFATM also integrated the MNCH in its five years strategy. USAID has also been supporting Safe Motherhood by strengthening Basic Obstetric and Neonatal care and voluntary family planning services. Child health programs supported by USG include those to support improvement of child health through improved diagnosis and treatment of febrile illnesses and improved nutrition. In addition, it also supports maternal health supplies under USA DELIVER project mainly focusing on (1) Forecasting and supply of maternal commodities (2) Monitoring stock out and (3) Support supervision at service delivery points. In this context, Population Action International (PAI) initiated The Integration Partnership (TIP) to support advocacy efforts to advance RH/HIV and MNCH/ATM integration within US investments and the Global Fund. As such, Human Development Trust (HDT), spent part of its grant from TIP to assess policy and financing for MNCH and how MNCH is integrated in ATM. To understand the extent of integration, a separate assessment at health facilities was done by MEWATA (another TIP partner) and findings were presented in a separate report. Whereas policies and strategies may show high priority on MNCH, the actual priority is often determined by the amount of funds allocated and actually spent on MNCH. In other words it s the resource envelope that determines the priority and whether supportive policy can be translated to quality services; hence discussions and conclusions will be made based on comparison of strategies and budget allocation. Budgeting for MNCH is important, but actual spending represent more reality as re-allocation can occur, but expenditure analysis for the year could not be done since expenditure reports were not available and in addition it was beyond the scope of this analysis. 1 In Tanzania, the estimated annual maternal mortality rate is 454 per 100,000 live births, infant Mortality rate is 68 per 1,000 live births, new born Mortality rate is 32 per 1,000 live birth, these mortality rates are associated by diseases which are HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Review shows that only 8% of children required to be on ARVs are actually on ARVs. Mortality rate among Patients with AIDS within three years of starting ART is 8.5%, with highest mortality (over 10%) occurring in the first year 1. The prevalence among men is 4.6% compared to 6.6% in women of this age group. HIV prevalence among ANC is higher than that of general population, recorded at 8.2%. An estimated 64% HIV+ mothers received ARVs for PMTCT, 19% of pregnant women with advanced HIV were put on ARVs for life and 56% of HIV+ babies were put on ARVs. 49% of infants were started on exclusive breast feeding within one hour after birth and significant proportion (98%) are breastfed up to six months with half on exclusive breast feeding (50%) 2. The table below shows the percentage utilization of MCH services as integrated in HIV and AIDS. Figure 1: Percentage utilization of MNCH integrated services Malaria also is another cause to these high mortality rates, annual malaria deaths in Tanzania are estimated to be 60,000, with 80% of these deaths among children fewer than five years of age. Campaign to Accelerate Reduction of Maternal Mortality was launched in Tanzania 6th June 2011, with a theme No woman dies while giving life which was a call to meet the already existing commitment. Morbidity related to TB is high among PLHIV, but the TB- related mortality is recorded at 78 per 100,000 per year. Given that the combined the mortality and morbidity caused by AIDS, Malaria and TB, integration of these services will not only reduce money invested but will maximize the human resource for health available. 1 HIV and AIDS Final evaluation of NMSF- care and treatment September Final evaluation of NMSF Prevention September To that effect, Tanzania has developed the MNCH Strategic Plan to accelerate reduction of maternal and child mortality in response to the MDGs and the New Delhi Declaration of April The mission of the plan is to promote, facilitate and support in an integrated manner, the provision of comprehensive reduction of maternal, newborn and child morbidity and mortality. The table below summarizes the MNCH interventions that are financed in the Budget system of Tanzania referred to as Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). Table 1: Interventions classified as MNCH S/N MNCH intervention S/N MNCH Interventions 1 Malaria initiatives 6 Contraceptive supply 2 Training of RCH, C- IMCI 1 7 Immunization for mother and child 3 Cancer of cervix 8 Maternal Mortality Reduction 4 Delivery kits procurement 9 Macro- nutrient and malnutrition 5 Vaccine & monitoring 10 Child protection and C- IMCI Although Malaria initiatives are classified as MNCH, it is important to note it is not entirely targeting MNCH; they target the whole country. For example, the fund budgeted for malaria campaign (free long lasting ITNs and indoor residual spraying) was done for all Tanzanians. This is to say when analysis of resource is made, it has to be noted that some of the resources goes to general population. 3 C-IMCI refers to Community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) 3 B: Goal and Objectives of the Assessment The goal: To undertake assessment MNCH policies, strategies and financing and how they are integrated in ATM. Objectives: 1. To establish policy commitment on MNCH through existing policies and strategies towards maternal newborn and child interventions; 2. To determine the extent at which maternal newborn and child health is integrated in existing AIDS, TB and Malaria interventions; 3. To establish financial commitment towards achieving maternal newborn and child health interventions This report therefore presents the findings of the assessment of the policies and strategies and financing for MNCH in interventions in Tanzania. It also analyzes the financial allocation trends for MNCH for two consecutive years It is divided into three parts: Chapter one highlights on the existing MNCH policies strategies and interventions; Chapter two gives the Budget Analysis on Financing MNCH; and Chapter three outlines the conclusions and recommendations. 4 Chapter 1: MNCH Policies, Strategies And Interventions 1.1. MNCH in Policies and Strategies Tanzania has mainstreamed maternal, newborn and child survival into its National Health Policy In policy statements, the Tanzanian government, in collaboration with other stakeholders, commits to provide free services for maternal, newborn and children under-five years. This is sometimes hindered by stock out, adherence to guidelines, infrastructure, community participation through positive health seeking behaviors etc. The National Road Map Strategic Plan to Accelerate Reduction of Maternal, Newborn and Child Deaths in Tanzania (One Plan) stipulates various strategies to guide all stakeholders for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH). Stakeholders include the government, development partners, non-governmental organizations, private health sector, faith-based organizations and communities. The National Health Policy was also translated into Health Sector Strategic Plan III ( ), Primary Health Services Development Programme , Human Resource for Health Strategic Plan to mention a few. Improving MNCH is also a major priority area in the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (NSGPR/ MKUKUTA) which has three major interlinked clusters. Goal three (Improving survival, Health, Nutrition and Wellbeing, Especially for Children, Women and Vulnerable Groups) is clearly outlined in the second cluster of the strategy. Under this goal, there are five operational targets of importance to MNCH are Fertility, Maternal and Neonatal Health, Infant, Child Health and Nutrition. These contribute to monitoring progress towards achieving MDG 4 and 5. The strategy further states, Operational targets and strategic interventions for achieving this goal which were identified based on the strategic areas and targets defined in the National Health Policy The Health Sector Strategic Plan III ( ) focuses on partnership for delivering the MDGs through two major programmes Primary Health 5 Services Development Programme (PHSDP or MMAM in Swahili) and the Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan. The PHSDP addresses the delivery of health services to ensure fair, equitable and quality services to the community and is envisioned to be the springboard for achieving good health for Tanzanians. The programme has 17 components which contribute to the attainment of objectives, whereby Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is one of them. The Five Year Development Plan (FYDP 2011/ /16) which is to be used as a budgeting tool for the government in the next five years also includes maternal and child health. It projects to reduce maternal mortality from 454 to 175 per 100,000 live births and the under-five child mortality from 112 to 45 per 1,000 live births by the year The FYDP is one third of a Long Term Perspective Plan (LTPP 2011/ /2026). In both of these documents MNCH is one of the strategic interventions for health related goals. In conclusion, the national policies and strategies acknowledge the need for prioritizing MNCH and include both targets and strategies towards meeting MDG 4 and 5. However there are differences in the targets set under each as compared to MDG targets (see Annex 1). MNCH Interventions Within the policies above, a number of interventions are presented. Below we summarize interventions planned towards MDG 4 and 5 and we classify them into Pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and post-delivery. Pre-Pregnancy Interventions: There are several interventions under this category including adolescent sexual reproductive health which also supports prevention of early pregnancies that contributes to the burden of maternal and neonatal deaths. A National Adolescent Reproductive Health Strategy has been developed to facilitate adolescent sexual reproductive health. The goal is to improve reproductive health of all adolescents in Tanzania through four strategic objectives namely: Strengthened policy and legal environment to support provision of sexual reproductive health information, services and life skills for adolescents; Increased adolescent s access to and utilization of quality reproductive health services; 6 Positive attitudes and behaviors promoted among parents, adolescents and the community towards improvement of adolescent sexual and reproductive health; Strengthened capacity of key stakeholders to deliver effective and efficient adolescent sexual and reproductive health programs. School Health Programs is one of the best settings to reach adolescents with sexual and reproductive health education and services including life skills training. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and other partners have developed policy and guidelines on school HIV education, life skills training and counseling for young people. Some of the schools have also trained peer educators and formed school health clubs as a strategy for ensuring young people s access to information. Teaching and learning materials have also been developed and approved by Education Material Approval Committee (EMAC) to be used by teachers as reference and some by pupils during peer education sessions. However, these services are not available in most school due to shortage of teachers trained to provide the services. Family Planning has always been an emphasis at policy level, though not always matched with level of financing. The government of Tanzania has all along recognized the importance of Family Planning meth
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