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A Semester II MB0047-Management Information System

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A Semester II MB0047-Management Information System
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    Winter 2014   M.B.A Semester II MB0047-Management Information SystemQ1. In the current e-world any organisation’s massie o!erations are managed "y arious ty!es of information systems that hel! them to achiee their goals of sericing their clients. #his can "e done "y the growth of modern organi$ation.%iscuss some of the essential features of modern organisation. AnsweEssential features of modern organisation- 1. IT-Enabled organisation 2. Networked organisation . !is"ersed organisation 4. #nowledge organisation 1. IT-Enabled organisation - The organisations discussed above are modernin the sense that they have built into their structure the elements of information technology (IT) that enable them to function in a manner appropriate to the demands of the environment. This is a fundamentaldifference between a modern organisation and its older premodernincarnation. !. Networked organisation - "odern organisations function in a world of  digital networks in addition to the physical world that was the same for the old organisations. The organisations are lin#ed as nodes on thenetwor# where they receive and transmit information. $emaining on thenetwor# re%uires  sensing and responding to this fl ow of information. &. !is"ersed organisation - Another #ey aspect of many large modernorganisations is that they are highly dispersed. Tata "otors for instancehas operations in many cities in India and in other parts of the world. The  companies disperse their operations to best meet customer needs or tolocate functions where the resources such as s#illed labour or rawmaterials are available. '. #nowledge organisation - "odern organisations rely on knowledgeworkers to a much larger etent than older organisations. These wor#ersdiffer from blue-collar wor#ers as their wor# responsibilities involveaccessing and dealing with #nowledge about the wor# and theenvironment as opposed to repetitive manual labour related to production. nowledge wor#ers en*oy greater autonomy in their wor# and the variety of wor# they have to perform. $2. Marketing managers are keener to look %or a least &ost ro'te t(at alsoallow a sales "erson to meet all (is &'stomers. Identi%)ing a least &ost ro'tewit( t(is %eat'res is slig(tl) &om"li&ated. T(ere%ore* managers de"end onde&ision s'""ort tools to %ind t(e most &ost e%%e&ti+e ro'tes to &o+er t(emarket. T(e tra+elling salesman "roblem is one o% s'&( tool. !es&ribe t(etool wit( a diagram. Answers +- Tra+elling salesman "roblem gra"(i&al re"resentation ,-   !es&ri"tion o% t(e "roblem ,- The salesman can start from A and then follow any se%uence such as A,,, /,0,E or A,0,/,,,E. If all the combinations of cities are counted there  are !2 ways in which the salesman can cover all the cities after starting from A. Each of these is called a tour. or the lowest cost tour the salesman would have to calculate the distance covered for each possible tour and ta#e the shortest one. If the salesman starts the tour from any of the other si cities the problem increases to 32'2 possible tours4 It is very dif5cult to compute the lowest cost for such a large number of tours. 6ence it is a wise step to rely on a decision support system that can do the *ob ef5ciently. The travelling salesman problem is a very well-#nown and well-researched  problem. 7hen the number of cities increases to about !2 the possible tours increase to more than ! 8 1219 tours which are about ! million trillion tours4 :uch a large number of calculations become hard to complete even for computers. $. T(ere are man) eam"les o% digital goods. om"anies s'&( asAma/on.&om are selling digital +ersions o% books o+er t(eir site. T(esedigital books &an be read on s"e&ial readers t(at dis"la) t(e "ages on as&reen.a. ist t(e im"ortant "ro"erties o% in%ormation goodsb. E"lain "ositi+e %eedba&k wit( diagramsa. isting t(e "ro"erties ,- ;ne form of information goods is digital productsthat can be distributed over digital networ#s and consumed over digital devices.or eample online boo#s and "<& music files are information goods that aresold and distributed over the Internet.i. 3ro"erties o% in%ormation goods-  Information goods have certain properties that ma#e them distinct from physical goods. Informationgoods are typically epensive to produce but very cheap to reproduce. or eample the srcinal cost of producing a music trac# by a professional band may run into millions of rupees. 6owever once the digital versionof the trac# is available it can be reproduced or copied for almost no costor at a very low cost.  ii. ow ost  + It is widely believed that owing to the spread of "<& music files across the Internet the music industry as a whole has been deeplyaffected. "any new businesses have evolved that directly sell music fi lesoff the Internet= the most famous eample of this is the iTunes store thatsells music fi les for the Apple music players. "any bands and musicgroups have also started selling and distributing their songs directly over the Internet. The digital readers have massive capacities= one such devicecan store thousands of boo#s. esides some of them provide accessthrough wireless networ#s to a huge library of free and paid boo#s thatthe readers can access instantly. iii. an be on+erted into ersions Easil) ,  Another property of digitalgoods is that they can be converted into versions %uite easily. A version of a good is a form that is different from the srcinal yet of the same nature.or eample physical boo#s are typically released in the mar#et as cloth- bound boo#s that are more epensive= and a few months later the same boo# is released in a paper-bound version. The content of both the boo#sis eactly the same ecept that the epensive version has a better %ualityof binding and better printing= and the cheaper version usually hassmaller print and the paper is of lower %uality. iv. Time al'e ,  Information goods that have a time value can be versioned%uite easily using information technology. or eample cric#et scoresthat are sent out on :": have a small price. 6owever the same scorescan be obtained a few minutes later in an online form for free. "any software ma#ers give away a free version of their software for users to sample and #eep a priced version for sale. v. Anot(er "ro"ert) o% digital goods  , many information goods are experience goods . This implies that the true value of the goods is evidentonly after they have been eperienced. or eample the value of amaga>ine article or a boo# can only be realised after it has been read.This is true for all maga>ine articles and all boo#s. Even the value of wee#ly maga>ines which arrive every wee# can only be gauged when  &ew users start using face"oo'. #hey en(oy the e)!erience #hey encourage other to (oin*otential user +nds it easy to  (oin they have been read()?nm=lEnd=l  E"lanation "ositi+e %eedba&k wit( diagrams ,- In a situation where there isa bene5 t for individual users when many others start using a networ# technology the bene5 t from using the networ# acts as a boost for all the users.or eample when people start using e-mail that allows them to send messagesand documents to many others they realise the bene5 t or value of the networ# and then are encouraged to use it even more. 7hen they use the e-mail networ# more often others are further encouraged too and the usage of the technologygrows. This is positive feedbac#. $4. !e&ision s'""ort s)stems !SS are 'sed etensi+el) a&rossorgani/ations to assist managers wit( making de&isions. !e&ision makingb) managers in+ol+es t(e "(ases o% intelligen&e* design* and &(oi&e* and!SS (el" mainl) wit( t(e &(oi&e "art as t(e) s'""ort str'&t'red and'nstr'&t'red t)"es o% de&isions. a. W(at is it t(at managers do w(en t(e) make de&isions5 b. E"lain t(e di%%erent t)"es o% de&isions
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