Documents

a-short-history-of-the-fork.pdf

Description
From The Art of the Table by Suzanne Von Drachenfels The word fork comes from the Latin 'furca' for pitch fork. The two-prong twig was perhaps the first fork. In Egyptian antiquity, large forks made of bronze were used at religious ceremonies to lift sacrificial offerings. One of the earliest dinner forks is attributed to Constantinople in 400 A.D. By the 7th century, small forks were used at Middle Eastern courts. One such fork, a small, go
Categories
Published
of 4
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
    From The rt of the Table by Suzanne Von Drachenfels The word fork comes from the Latin 'furca'  for pitch fork. The two-prong twig was perhaps the first fork. In Egyptian antiquity, large forks made of bronze were used at religious ceremonies to lift sacrificial offerings. One of the earliest dinner forks is attributed to Constantinople in 400 A.D. By the 7th century, small forks were used at Middle Eastern courts. One such fork, a small, gold, two-pronged tool, came to Italy in the 11th century in the dowry of a Byzantine princess who married a Venetian doge. The church banned the use of fork – an affront to God's intentions for fingers . Thereafter the fork disappeared from the table for nearly 300 years.  1 I n England the fork was slow to gain acceptance. When Catherine de Medici married Henry I in 1533, her dowry included several dozen dinner forks. The fork began to gain acceptance in Italy by the late sixteenth century, a period when upper-class Italians expressed renewed interest in cleanliness. However, the French court considered the fork an awkward, even dangerous, utensil, and the nobility did not accept it until the 17th century when protocol deemed it uncivilized to eat meat with both hands. The way to use the fork remained a mystery, and many sophisticates, notably King Louis XIV, continued to eat with fingers or a knife. In 1608 an Englishman, Thomas Coryate, took the grand tour of Europe, and on his return published a narrative that included the Italian custom of eating with a fork. Thereafter, Coryate's friends  jokingly called the young traveler  Furciferus  , Pitchfork. Find words that belong the following categories in Paragraph 1: Vocabulary for historical timing  :  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________    Geographical vocabulary:  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________     ________________________________  Religious vocabulary:  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________   Find the following in Paragraph 2:  a)  property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they marry  – _____________________ ;  b)  the king or queen and all his/her advisers, officials, family, etc.  – _____________________;  c)  people of high social rank who have titles – _____________________;  d)  people who have or show a lot of experience of the world and social situations, know about fashion, culture, etc. – ______________________.     2    The modern table setting is attributed to Charles I of England who in 1633 declared, It is decent to use a fork,  a statement that heralded the beginning of civilized table manners. But it wasn't until almost a century later that the fork gained acceptance among the lower class. The first dinner forks were made with two flat prongs. The earliest two-prong fork to bear an English hallmark and engraved with a coat of arms dates to 1632 and is attributed to the Earl of Rutland. It can be seen today in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. But when it came to spearing certain foods, such as peas and grains, the widely spaced two-prong fork was impractical, and between the 17th - 18th centuries the tines increased in number from two to three and then to four. Moreover, from the late 17th century to the mid-eighteenth century, the profile of the fork changed from flat to slightly curved, a shape that accommodated a scoop of soft food, such as peas. But three- and four-prong forks were slow to reach North America, where people continued to eat from a knife blade food that was difficult to spear with a two-prong fork, such as mashed potatoes and gravy. 3 Find the following words in Paragraph 3 and mark what part of speech they are (noun – n, verb –v, adjective – adj, adverb – adv, past participle – pp, gerund – gr, relative pronoun – rel pron) : attributed ____, setting _____, gained _____, two-prong – _______, dates – ______, who – _____, tines – ______, scoop – _____, spearing – ________, knife – ________, gravy –  _________.   Read Paragraph 3 again and answer the questions: 1) To whom is the modern table setting attributed? __________________________________________________________   2) When did the fork gain acceptance among the lower class? __________________________________________________________   3) How did the first dinner forks look like? __________________________________________________________   4) Where can the earliest fork be seen? __________________________________________________________ 5) When did the fork tines increase in number? __________________________________________________________ 6) What happened to the shape of the fork in the late 17 th  century? __________________________________________________________ 7) Why did people in North America use to eat mashed potatoes from a knife blade? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The profile of a fork the earliest fork:  ______________________  ______________________ the 17 th  – 18 th  century fork:  ________________________  ________________________     Antique fork from Wikipedia Pictures by courtesy of www.freedigitalphotos.net  Abridged article from www.foodreference.com In the 19th century, mass production and the invention of the electroplating process made silver forks affordable to a rising middle class who wished to emulate the nobility and eat with forks made for specific foods, such as berries, birds, cake, cold meat, cucumbers, fish, ice cream, lettuce, lobster, oysters, pickles, salad, sardines, shellfish, strawberries, soufflé, terrapin, tomatoes, and to pass sliced bread at the tea table. Although fork handles were normally made of silver or silver plate, in the nineteenth century organic materials were also used, such as bone, mother-of-pearl, and ivory (the latter often tinted green). Fork tines were shortened and closer together, and remain so today. No longer did fingers touch food, except to pick up small fruit, such as grapes. Nor did servants wash forks during a meal for use with another course. Today, depending on need, a set of flatware may contain five forks: dinner fork, fish fork, luncheon fork, salad or dessert fork, and seafood fork. But the collector may amass specialized forks—for eating lobster, fruit, dessert, ice cream, pastry, strawberries, snails, and oysters—from antique shops and specialty stores.  4 Fill in the blanks using the information deduced from Paragraph 4 1) Forks became affordable because of the………… of the electroplating process. a) inventing b)  investing c)  invention d)  discovery 2)  In the 19 th  century the middle class tried to …………the nobility. a)  emulate b)  stimulate c) substitute d)  formulate 3)  In the 19 th  century fork handles were sometimes………. of bone or ivory. a)  covered b)  made c)  cast d)  tinted 4) When forks became affordable people ………. fingers to pick up small fruit. a)  no longer used b)  used to c) have already used d) still used 5)  Before forks became affordable servants …………. wash them after each course. a) used to b) had been using c)  must d)  usually     Key   Paragraph 1: Categories: Historical timing: antiquity, the earliest, 400 A.D., the 7 th  century, the 11 th  century, 300 years; Geographical vocabulary: Egyptian, Constantinople, Middle Eastern, Byzantine, Venetian; Religious vocabulary: religious ceremonies, sacrificial offerings, church, God Paragraph 2: a) dowry, b) the court, c) the nobility, d) sophisticates. Paragraph 3: Attributed – pp, setting – n, gained – v, two-prong – adj, dates – v, who – rel pron, tines – n, scoop – n, spearing – ger, knife – adj (adjectively used noun), gravy – n. Questions: 1) To Charles I of England; 2) Round 1733; 3) flat with two prongs; 4) In the Victoria and Albert Museum in London; 5) Between the 17 th  – 18 th  centuries; 6) It became slightly curved; 7) Because such food was difficult to spear with two-prong fork. The profile of a fork: the earliest fork – with two flat prongs; the 17-18 th  century fork: slightly curved with 3-4 prongs. Paragraph 4: 1) c, 2) a, 3) b, 4) d, 5) a.

out1

Jul 23, 2017
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks