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A Standard for Business Architecture

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This article provides a set of business concepts that partition the world of business meaning. It discusses the purpose of such an architectural view of business, and ways that it can be used. A set of generic concepts and their interrelationships
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  IBM Systems Journal Article:A Standard for Business Architecture Description  Author: D W McDavidDate: 12th October 1998Document Number: ESSSJBI!"!"#$W%Document Statu&: SubmittedDocument 'er&ion: "#"   A Standard (or Bu&ine&& Architecture De&cri)tion Abstract  A com)*ete architectura* &)eci(ication o( an I+ &,&tem inc*ude& in(ormation about ho- it i& )artitioned andho- the )art& are interre*ated# It a*&o contain& in(ormation about -hat it &hou*d do and the )ur)o&e it mu&t &erve in the bu&ine&&# +hi& artic*e )rovide& a &et o( bu&ine&& conce)t& that )artition the -or*d o( bu&ine&& meanin.# It di&cu&&e& the )ur)o&e o( &uch an architectura* vie- o( bu&ine&&/ and -a,& that it can be u&ed# A &et o( .eneric conce)t& and their interre*ation&hi)& or.ani0e bu&ine&& in(ormation contentIn term& o( reuirement& on the bu&ine&&/ the boundar, o( the bu&ine&&/ and the bu&ine&& a& a &,&tem (or de*iver, o( va*ue# Method& are introduced to e)*ore variation& on the ba&ic bu&ine&& conce)t )attern&# +he&e conce)t& are )o&itioned to de&cribe I+ &,&tem& that &u))ort the bu&ine&&/ and the, are u&ed to mana.e the -or3 o( I+ &,&tem deve*o)ment and de)*o,ment#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! This article is one of a series. It focuses on the business concepts that underlie IT systems, as shown on the following roadmap for the series: 4 IBM 5or)oration 1998%a.e 226  SOLUTION DEVELOPMENT  2. deploy1. analyze. reuse!. har"est S#$%&I#'S So*ution 5u&tomi0ation Enter)ri&e So*ution& Structure +ech# 7e(erence Architecture&  A Standard (or Architecture De&cri)tion Bu&ine&& Architecture De&cri)tion a.c.e.d.b.  ASSETS HARVEST/REUSE  E2)erience& in 7eu&in. +ech# 7e(# Architecture& f.   A Standard (or Bu&ine&& Architecture De&cri)tion Introduction Bu&ine&& toda, i& inetricab*, intert-ined -ith in(ormation &,&tem techno*o.,# rom the &ma**e&t home o((ice bu&ine&& &u))orted b, a &hrin3!-ra) bu&ine&& &uite/ to the mu*tinationa* cor)oration -ith mu*ti)*e mono*ithic *e.ac, a))*ication&/ it i& im)o&&ib*e to be in bu&ine&& toda, -ithout con(rontin. the i&&ue& o( &u))ortin. the bu&ine&& -ith &o(t-are# +he artic*e& in thi& i&&ue o( IBM Systems Journal   are ba&ed on the )remi&e that a &et o( inter*oc3in. &emantic (rame-or3& are nece&&ar, in order to under&tand and create the &o(t-are &o*ution& (or the enter)ri&e o( toda, and the (uture#+he Enter)ri&e So*ution Structure ESS )ro;ect i& IBM<& re&)on&e to thi& cha**en.e# A& indicated in the introductor, artic*e to thi& i&&ue 1 / ESS ha& )rovided &ub&tantia* e)erience in rea* -or*d en.a.ement&/ ba&ed on *e&&on& *earned (rom a number o( )reviou& )ro;ect&# +hi& ha& *ed to a re(ined &et o( technica* re(erence architecture& and &o*ution cu&tomi0ation techniue&# +he &ucce&& o( thi& underta3in. i& ba&ed on &tandard architectura* )rinci)*e& and &emantic&/ &tartin. -ith an under&tandin. o( ho- bu&ine&& i&&ue&drive in(ormation &,&tem& reuirement&/ a& &ho-n in i.ure 1# +he (i.ure &ho-& that a &et o( &tandard bu&ine&& conce)t& can or.ani0e the )articu*ar 3no-*ed.e about a an, .iven enter)ri&e# +hi& or.ani0ed bu&ine&& 3no-*ed.e .ive& ri&e to reuirement& (or enter)ri&e in(ormation &,&tem&# +he&e reuirement& can be &ati&(ied in t-o .enera* -a,&: one b, the traditiona* cu&tom deve*o)ment a))roach/ and the other b, matchin. )attern& o( reuirement& to )attern& o( ei&tin. a&&et&# Both o( the&e a))roache& *ead to the deve*o)ment o( enter)ri&e &o*ution&/ but the abi*it, to reu&e ei&tin. a&&et& )rovide& ma;or economie&#i.ure 1+hi& artic*e i& a contribution to the di&cu&&ion o( a))ro)riate bu&ine&& conce)t& (or or.ani0in. enter)ri&e 3no-*ed.e# It )rovide& a &et o( &tandard bu&ine&& conce)t&/ and .uidance a& to ho- to u&e them to in&tantiate or.ani0ed 3no-*ed.e about &)eci(ic enter)ri&e&# +hi& i& a hi.h!*eve* &emantic (rame-or3 -hich ha& been deve*o)ed over a con&iderab*e *en.th o( time# +he conce)t& that are )re&ented here have been ab&tracted (rom e)erience -ith man, &)eci(ic enter)ri&e bu&ine&& mode*&/ variou& IBM .eneric indu&tr, re(erence mode*&/ and &evera* ,ear& o( e)erience in or.ani0in. bu&ine&& termino*o., (or &)eci(ic bu&ine&&e&# +he ESS )ro;ect ha& )roduced &evera* ver&ion& o( a bu&ine&& meta!*an.ua.e/ and thi& artic*e re)re&ent& the current &tate o( thi& -or3#+hi& artic*e i& or.ani0ed into the (o**o-in. &ection&:1%*ach, and =au&*er/ 19994 IBM 5or)oration 1998%a.e "26 >no-*ed.e Or.ani0ationBu&ine&& 5once)t&5u&tom Deve*o)mentEnter)ri&e 7e1uirement&%attern Matchin.Enter)ri& So*utionEnter)ri&e >no-*ed.eE2i&tin.  A&&et&   A Standard (or Bu&ine&& Architecture De&cri)tion w %ur)o&e o( a bu&ine&& &,&tem architecture ! +hi& &ection di&cu&&e& the )ur)o&e o( an architectura* vie- o( bu&ine&& and ho- it i& u&ed# It a*&o de(ine& -hat i& meant b, a bu&ine&& &,&tem architecture in the contet o( an overa** architecture &emantic (rame-or3/ a& -e** a& criteria (or inc*u&ion o( a conce)t in thi& )articu*ar document# w Bu&ine&& conce)t& ! A &et o( .eneric conce)t& and their interre*ation&hi)& or.ani0ed into the (o**o-in. three &ection&#! 7euirement& on the bu&ine&& ! +he &et o( conce)t& that re)re&ent re*ation&hi)& o( the bu&ine&& to the-or*d at *ar.e/ -hich im)o&e reuirement& on it a& a bu&ine&& &,&tem#! Boundar, o( the bu&ine&& ! +he &et o( conce)t& that dea* -ith bu&ine&& boundarie& and tran&!boundar, a.reement&! +he bu&ine&& de*iver, &,&tem ! +he &et o( conce)t& that )rovide under&tandin. o( ho- the bu&ine&& de*iver& va*ue b, 3ee)in. it& commitment&# w Source& and re)re&entation& o( variabi*it, ! A di&cu&&ion o( bu&ine&& termino*o., a& the &ource o( variation& on ba&ic bu&ine&& conce)t& (or individua* bu&ine&&e&/ a& -e** a& an overvie- o( method& (or re)re&entin. detai*ed bu&ine&& in(ormation in the (orm o( mode*&# w 7e*ation to I+ architecture ! %oint& o( inter&ection bet-een conce)t& in the bu&ine&& architecture and conce)t& in the I+ &,&tem architecture de&cri)tion &tandard#4 IBM 5or)oration 1998%a.e ?26   A Standard (or Bu&ine&& Architecture De&cri)tion (urpose of a Business System Architecture  A com)anion artic*e 2  in thi& i&&ue create& a meta!*an.ua.e o( architecture (or techno*o.,!ba&ed in(ormation &,&tem&# +hi& meta!*an.ua.e enab*e& architect& to communicate -ith a common &et o( conce)t& about ho- in(ormation &,&tem& can be de&i.ned in a modu*ar -a, -ith common*, under&tood inter(ace&# +hi& artic*e etend& the idea o( a meta!*an.ua.e to con&ider i&&ue& o( the bu&ine&& to be &u))orted b, I+ &o*ution&# Our concern i& to under&tand ho- the domain o( bu&ine&& can be under&tood accordin. to &ome common .eneric conce)t&# A dictionar, de(inition o( architecture i&/ @a uni(,in. or coherent (orm or &tructure# +hi& de(inition i& a))ro)riate (or the 3ind o( architecture that i& addre&&ed b, the ESS )ro;ect# Such an architecture i& u&ed (or t-o )ur)o&e&: to under&tand and to bui*d# In thi& artic*e -e are tr,in. to under&tand the meanin. o( bu&ine&& 3no-*ed.e b, u&in. an architecture o( 3e, bu&ine&& conce)t&# A va*id ue&tion ma, be rai&ed a& to -h, -e &hou*d be concerned -ith an architecture o( bu&ine&& conce)t&/ in the contet o( bui*din. &o(t-are &,&tem&# A(ter a**/ I+ architect& do not create businesses / the, create techno*o.,!ba&ed in(ormation &,&tem&# =o-ever/ the &,&tem& that the, create do have a (undamenta* im)act on bu&ine&&e&# In addition to )ure*, technica* i&&ue&/ in(ormation &,&tem& architect&need to be concerned -ith the content and u&a.e o( the &,&tem& that are bui*t#  An ana*o., i& o(ten dra-n bet-een the architecture o( bui*din.& and the architecture o( &o(t-are &,&tem&# "  One *e&&on (rom that ana*o., i& that architect& o( bui*din.& &tart -ith a (undamenta* under&tandin. o( the )ur)o&e& to be &erved b, tho&e bui*din.&# Architect& o( &uburban home& need to under&tand &omethin. about the behavior )attern& o( ,oun./ .ro-in. (ami*ie&# Architect& o( manu(acturin. )*ant& need to under&tand )attern& o( con(i.urab*e a&&emb*, *ine&# Architect& o( hi.h!ri&e o((ice to-er& and architect& o( mini!ma**& need to under&tand )attern& o( bu&ine&& behavior in core bu&ine&& di&trict& and out*,in. area& re&)ective*,# In a &imi*ar (a&hion/ architect& o( enter)ri&e &,&tem& need to under&tand )attern& o( bu&ine&& behavior and )attern& o( techno*o., and ho- the, -or3 to.ether to enab*e bu&ine&&e& to achieve their &trate.ic and tactica* .oa*&#+he bui*din. ana*o., on*, .oe& &o (ar in under&tandin. bu&ine&& and it& I+ &u))ort# Another )er&)ective on bu&ine&& enter)ri&e& i& to thin3 o( them a& *ivin. &,&tem&/ under.oin. an on.oin. )roce&& o( evo*ution# +hi& ana*o., he*)& u& to under&tand the re*ation&hi) bet-een bu&ine&&e& and in(ormation &,&tem& techno*o.,# Evo*ution i& the re&u*t o( t-o ba&ic condition&# One i& a &ource o( nove*t, ? / and the other i& an o))ortunit, to e)and into unoccu)ied environment&  # +oda, the u&e o( in(ormation techno*o., i& creatin. both the nece&&ar, &ource o( nove*t, and the e)an&ive environment that i& drivin. ra)id evo*ution o( bu&ine&&# We are in the mid&t o( techno*o.,!driven and techno*o.,!enab*ed bu&ine&& evo*ution/ a& net-or3& and in(ormation techno*o., create ne- bu&ine&& eco!niche&# Eam)*e& o( evo*ution ta3in. )*ace in thi& ne- mar3et)*ace eco&,&tem inc*ude:2Coun.&/ et a*/ 1999"See $*o,d/ et a*/ 1999 (or a re(erence to 5hri&to)her A*eander in thi& re.ard#?Bio*o.ica* evo*ution i& driven b, chan.e& in DNA )roduced b, mutation/ bacteria* recombination/ and &,mbio.ene&i&# S,mbio.ene&i& i& the )roce&& -hereb, *on.!a.o bacteria (ormed &uch inetricab*e a&&ociation& -ith each other that the, created -ho*e ne- *i(e (orm&# Ever, ce** in ever, )*ant and ever, anima* on earth contain& m,riad inde)endent*, re)roducin. mitochondria/ each -ith their o-n DNA and 7NA/ that are the *ivin. de&cendant& o( the&e &,mbiotic re*ation&hi)&# $,nn Mar.u*i& re(er& to our ce**& a&@ce**u*ar cor)oration&# Mar.u*i&/ 1996#S)ecie& tend to emer.e to (i** em)t, eco!niche&# enera**, thi& (o**o-& cata&tro)hic event&/ &uch a& a&teroid co**i&ion& or the o,.en cri&i&# Occa&iona**, thi& i& the re&u*t o( ne- environment& bein. created# An eam)*e o( non!cata&tro)hic o))ortuni&m i& the ei&tence o( &ome 16 o( &)ecie& o( (i&h o( the &ame .enu& (ound on*, in $a3e 'ictoria in Ea&t A(rica# +he, evo*ved (rom a river!d-e**in. ance&tor -hen earth movement &udden*, created one o( the *ar.e&t bodie& o( (re&h -ater on the )*anet# 7oth&chi*d/ 199#4 IBM 5or)oration 1998%a.e 26
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