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AAPA Guide to the Handling Storage Manufacture of PMB's Final Version Jan 2013.pdf

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GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS Disclaimer Although the information contained in this booklet is believed to be fundamentally correct and current at time of printing, the Australian Asphalt Pavement Association does not accept any contractual, tortious or other form of liability for its contents or any consequences arising from its use. GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS Foreword The Austra
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  GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS Disclaimer Although the information contained in this booklet is believed to be fundamentally correct and current at time of printing, the Australian Asphalt Pavement Association does not accept any contractual, tortious or other form of liability for its contents or any consequences arising from its use. GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS Foreword The Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA) has prepared this guide as an aid to promoting best practice in the manufacture, storage, transport, handling and application of polymer modified binders. This document replaces the previous version entitled Code of Practice: Manufacture, Storage and Handling of Polymer Modified Binders, which was published in June 2004. A significant difference between Polymer Modified Binders (PMBs) and conventional bitumen is the need for additional care in handling to ensure that the effectiveness of the polymer or rubber crumb is not reduced by overheating, contamination, or other degradation during storage and transport.Procedures contained in this guide are intended to provide assurance to end users of consistent quality of hot PMB materials produced in a controlled manufacturing environment. Issues relating specifically to the production of PMBs by the addition of either polymer or rubber crumb in the field (i.e. at the point of use) will be covered in a separate guide. Specific requirements for PMB emulsions are also excluded from this guide as these materials require different storage and handling practises. Acknowledgements AAPA wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals and groups: Technical Writer of Original Draft John Rebbechi Roadcor Pty Ltd Document Review Working Group Stuart Dack BP BitumenTrevor Distin Boral AsphaltNigel Preston Shell Review Groups: AAPA Binder Producers’ Group John Arvanitidis CaltexRobert Busuttil AAPAWarren Carter Downer AustraliaStuart Dack BP BitumenTrevor Distin Boral AsphaltGerard Gnanseelan SAMI BitumenJohn Lysenko Fulton HoganSam Maccarrone ExxonMobilNeil Morcombe Bituminous ProductsNigel Preston Shell Austroads Asphalt Research Working Group (ARWG)Austroads Bituminous Surfacings Working Group (BSWG)  GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 12. MANUFACTURE 1  2.1 General 1 2.2 Equipment 1 2.3 Manufacturing process 2 2.3.1 Overview 2 2.3.2 Bitumen supply and storage 2 2.3.3 Combining agent 2 2.3.4 Polymer 2 2.3.5 Pre-blending 2 2.3.6 Mixing 2 2.3.7 Storage of finished product 3 2.3.8 Testing and release of product 3 2.3.9 Loading gantry 3 2.4 Product testing and evaluation 3 2.5 Temperature 3 2.6 Non-conforming products 3 3 SAMPLING AND TESTING 4  3.1 Sampling 4 3.2 Laboratory Testing 4 3.3 Tracing Properties of Delivered Materials 5 3.4 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 6 4 TRANSPORT, STORAGE AND APPLICATION 6 OF PMBs  4.1 General handling and safety requirements 6 4.2 Special requirements for PMBs 6 4.2.1 Temperature 6 4.2.2 Moisture 6 4.2.3 Cleaning materials 6 4.2.4 Segregation 6 4.2.5 Loading of delivery vehicles 7 4.2.6 Reheating during transport 7 4.2.7 Delivery into storage tanks or 8 bitumen sprayers 4.2.8 Field sampling 8 5 ASPHALT WORK 9  5.1 General 9 5.2 Production of asphalt mixes 9 5.3 Placement and Compaction 9 6 SPRAYED SEALING WORK 9  6.1 General 9 6.2 Field procedures 9 6.2.1 General handling requirements for PMBs 9 6.2.2 Cutter 10 6.2.3 Adhesion Agent 10 6.2.4 Aggregate Precoating 10 REFERENCES 11GLOSSARY 12 Australian Asphalt Pavement Association Limited (AAPA) AAPA is a non-profit organisation formed to promote the economic use of asphalt based on sound technical grounds. The Association’s Mission Statement for Research and Development is to ensure the attainment of the optimum level of quality and long-term performance in flexible pavement design, construction and maintenance. The AAPA Technology Committee manages the AAPA R&D Program for Asphalt Research and Technology and works in close cooperation with the Austroads Pavement Reference Group. The research programs are coordinated and complementary.Reproduction of extracts from this publication may be made subject to due acknowledgement of the source.  GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS 1 1. INTRODUCTION This guide to best practice has been prepared by the manufacturers and users of Polymer Modified Binders (PMBs) to: ã Provide guidelines for the manufacture and handling of hot PMBs. ã Provide assurance to end users of the consistent  manufacturing quality of delivered products. ã Reduce the potential for degradation and contamination  due to inappropriate handling or heating during the delivery, storage and application processes.PMBs generally consist of a blend of paving grade bitumen and polymer or rubber crumbs. In some cases, combining agents and other additives are added to the base bitumen to assist in blending and achievement of particular performance characteristics. The normal safety, quality and environmental considerations involved in the manufacture, storage and handling of a PMB includes: ã Accurate blending of materials and control of manufacture  to ensure that the product conforms to the required specification. ã Monitoring and control of temperature at all phases  of manufacture, storage, transport and field use to avoid premature deterioration of polymers or rubber crumbs at high temperatures. ã Maintenance of the homogeneity of some mixtures that  may segregate. ã Avoidance of contamination with other products that may alter performance characteristics of the product. A number of different organisations may be involved in the manufacture, sampling and testing, transport and application of PMBs. Control throughout the process needs to be coordinated and responsibility accepted by the various organisations.This guide is intended to be complementary to the following publications: AAPA HS&E Guide No. 5:  Guide to the safe use of SBS    Austroads Bituminous Materials Safety Guide , AP-G41/08  Austroads Specification Framework for Polymer Modified  Binders and Multigrade Bitumens , AG:PT/T190 Austroads Guide to the Selection and Use of Polymer Modified Binders and Multigrade Bitumens, AP-T42/06  Austroads Modified Binder Test Methods  ( http://www.austroads.com.au/pavements ) AAPA Advisory Note 7: Guide to the Heating and Storage of  Binders for Sprayed Sealing and Hot Mixed Asphalt  Australian Dangerous Goods Code , 7th Edition (October 2011).Other relevant publications are referenced at the end of this document, including Austroads guides, Technical Reports and Pavement Work Tips. 2. MANUFACTURE 2.1 General The manufacturer should establish, document and maintain a quality system to ensure that the products supplied conform to the stated specifications. The quality system should consist of procedures, regular inspections and tests and/or assessments and the use of the results to control the quality of the finished product. A quality system conforming to the requirements of ISO 9001 and made specific to the requirements of the Austroads Specification Framework for Polymer Modified Binders and Multigrade Bitumens  and the AAPA  Guide to the safe use of SBS  , is considered to satisfy the above requirements. The results of inspections, tests or assessments requiring action should be recorded, as should any action taken. The action to be taken when control values or criteria are not met should be recorded and retained for the period specified in the manufacturer’s quality procedures. 2.2 Equipment Testing  - all laboratory weighing, measuring and testing equipment should be calibrated and regularly inspected according to documented procedures, frequencies and criteria. Manufacturing  - all equipment used in the manufacturing process should be regularly inspected, calibrated and maintained to ensure use, wear or failure does not cause inconsistency in the manufacturing process. Inspections and maintenance should be carried out and recorded in accordance with the manufacturer’s written procedures, and the records retained for the period defined in the manufacturer’s quality procedures.  GUIDE TO THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF POLYMER MODIFIED BINDERS 2 2.3 Manufacturing process 2.3.1 Overview A general flow diagram for the process of PMB manufacture using a high shear mill is shown in Figure 1. Further notes on the requirements for each element of the manufacturing process are described in the following sections. Figure 1: Manufacturing process 2.3.2 Bitumen supply and storage The consistency and quality of the base bitumen used for PMB manufacture should be monitored, for example, through the use of supplier’s certificates of compliance, to ensure appropriateness for PMB manufacture. Similarly, bitumen in storage should be monitored to ensure no adverse changes occur that may adversely impact PMB quality. Systems should identify procedures for assessing the influence of changes in source of bitumen materials on the required proportions of other component materials and/or properties of the manufactured PMB. 2.3.3 Combining agent Combining agents are sometimes added to PMBs to improve their performance properties and shelf life and should comply with the requirements of the AAPA Guide to the safe use of SBS  . Acceptance criteria and storage conditions for combining agents should be documented.Most PMBs are sufficiently stable at normal processing and application temperatures. However, the inclusion of combining agents and other additives, coupled with higher temperatures than normally used with conventional bitumen, can produce a noticeable increase in fuming.It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to exclude the use of ingredients that have known adverse health effects and to ensure that all relevant safety precautions are followed, as set out in the supplier’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). 2.3.4 Polymer The common generic polymer types used for the manufacture of PMBs specified in the Austroads Framework for Polymer Modified Binders and Multigrade Bitumens  are Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS), Polybutadiene (PBD) and Ethylene  Vinyl Acetate (EVA). These materials are generally proprietary products manufactured to strict quality standards. Experience has shown that a supplier certificate of compliance provides adequate verification of the quality of these materials.The characteristics of rubber crumbs used in the modification of bitumen are specified in Table 5.5 of the Austroads Specification Framework for Polymer Modified Binders and Multigrade Bitumens , AG:PT/T190. Incoming rubber crumb should be tested for compliance against these requirements. Every effort should be made to ensure that the rubber crumbs are free of moisture and foreign materials, such as steel and fibre. Rubber crumbs should be stored in a manner that prevents exposure to rain and moisture. 2.3.5 Pre-blending Where raw materials are required to be pre-blended, procedures should be established and documented for proportioning, mixing and storing the blended material. 2.3.6 Mixing Component materials should be thoroughly mixed to ensure production of a homogeneous PMB. The design of mixing equipment varies considerably depending on the type of PMB being manufactured and can vary from high shear mills used to blend SBS pellets to low shear agitation for blending rubber crumbs. Critical elements that are common to all processes include procedures for proportioning of materials, temperature control, mixing time and conditions, and maintenance and cleanliness of equipment.   Bitumen tank Combining Agent tank Polymer Pre-blend tank Mill Finished product tank Loading Gantry
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