Advanced CAD Application Part 1

Advanced CAD Application Part 1
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  i Best Practices mplementation Theso practicct hslp p€ople ir| an organizalion consistendy perfonn to th€ highest evelsin design, manufacturing, and customer suppo.t. kading manuhctutEls labvt lhat $ccess depends on putting knowledge to wolk ApPle lruly understaftls usability' trd 3M h'ollrs coadngsan.l innovaiion. AMP knows conneciots and heir applicado4 GE knows bow lo cool $rbineblides. Kennsmetal knows carbid€s, Motorcla knows $mmunications' and s on Yel thesccompanies ar€ ollen so large and dispersed' fiey nnd it bard to rencdrbef' whrt they klov'/'The pmblem s easy o understand Knowledge s widely disP$ed Sone sinR&D'somein sales, ome n engineeing, strd some n manulacnrring Olher knowledge eems o permeatelhc cullurE. Pmgrams nd product ines nray span ecades. herc ate doze$ otlocatons, scorcsof dcpanments, atu orousads of employees Key p€ople are about m rcdrc' Sone knowledge isin files. More is in compuler syslems, n stardards' in checkli$s' and in people's memones-Knowledge is even embodied in tlF machines on the plant floor aIld tE rlgorittuN of oldcompuler prog.ams. It is no wonder, with knowledgc so *idelv dispers€d, hal conpa'iessometimes orgel Io apply theit best pmctice.l here sre three recur.irg them€s n the c{pture and us€ofknowledge:l,) Leadine companies have explicii $mglams o capture ard apply b€st pnctices'Th€y rcgald know-how as an imponant asset. AMP' for example' has begun a database oI besl practices. Most are aclive in produd aDd proc€ss b€nchmarkinS2) Lea.ling companies have focused on one or more areas ofcorE competencl wilhR&D.3) taading companies effectiYely usc compuLr techoologi/ to rEmembei whal 'heybow-across th€ entir€ enterprise. They also sripport this with pilol programsaimed at fi8ding new and moe .ffcctive ways to crcrlc, capNe' dd rerieve bestDractice nfomarion-CAD/CAM is viewed by many users s he b€s elivery pladorm or much of lhis ntorma'rion. Psychologisls leu us rhat we deal wilh informadon in firce major ways: auditory (words);visual diagmms, enderings. icluits)i and kine$heric physicar nrcmdion). The world ofengineenng ard manufacturjng is eqtecially dominated by visuarly and physicaly orientedhinkers. Yet, mo$ commercial data bares only effeclively handte wonls .nd rela$onal ublesCAD/CAM is the most tullt developed echnology io cteate and sharE visual imagqs drnwings, rendenngs, animalions) and o build physical artifacts (rapid pobrypes or rcal p.ns).D€spiE lhe hoopla abour multj-media and virfral rEalily, it is likely ltEse capabilities will beadderj ro ouf alread y famil iar paradigms of CAD systems and publishing sysems ra&er oranKnowledge hat coDrpanies ish to capture fo. flsi subs€quent etrievsl tcl des helollowing: I Proprietart echnology rd best practices. Knoe/ted8e rom kry empto]€es, speciatly f neadng €tirEmenir Desigo nfomation for commercially vailable omponenB rd siandardsr Pmduci nformaiion a complere aclage ncluding g€ometry, esign ntent,chnnge islories, ill of nateiak. tcst data, warraniy nformation, lc.)Of course, aper and micmfdmed drawings ave ong b€€n a repository f knowknge.Leading compnnies re aking CAD b€yond digital arEhive or dnwingr to a more accessibler€pository f lalowiedge nd b€st pracdces. om€ qeciffc wajs ihe studt participanh areusing c{mputer tools o capture knorvledge r€ th€se:I Integration fCAD and omcc automalion ols on h€ same wodGtation CAD users an nm olher applicaqions r send elecuonic mail vrhile completingrcmal dedSF eorti hDdllcl stru.trMnformadon (btl of natcdars) nked ro CADa Rdaduul dala bases inted to CAD d{iries. Dsia bas.s oflaster magcs fpait 2-D CAD data Updared morE raphical) mup ectnology con Eprs. 'hEuig€t{- crlalogs of compcng d€sigru. Greaacr sc of axsembly mod€ling and EferEncc iles r Cntrmon $b6ynems rnd teclxDlogy plnformsr Prodwibility and DFMA (D€sign or Manufacrur€ nd Als€mbly) data basesr lrnpmved kno\/ledge of rlmugh ABC (Activity-Based Co$ing). Knowledge trd practices mntained n CAD prcgralns GRIP pmgrdlns, lc.)r (iowledge {rd pnclices contained n analysis nd simdatior prognlmsr Specializ€d BE (Knowledg. Based ngineering) pplicarionsr Design ofE perimeds DOE) and Taguchi methodsI Rapid pmtotyping hard prororlTes) or early uscr cedbackr Cmputer sirnularions 'soft ' proroD?es) or e.ady se. eedbackr Cuslomer arisfaction merrics, ink€d ao producr l€finirions  One issue ariscs n anaching knowtcdge lo gmmer.ic rcprlsstarion: the producr dcfini,i'on a CAD modcl and documcflalion package? Or is i. a collecrion of algoririms, rccipcs, aDrlpmgrams? lncrEasirgly, pmducr designs are 8€rdra,ed frcn knolrredge bases.The mosl slccesstul idtiatives lo caprure b:s Facdces, u.lging bl, widespread ?doprio4 arEoften the simplest. Despi{e widesprcad nerc$ and nlclLigation of ncq, rechrctogics, tnejory isstill oul on nany of$e morE cornptcx endeavoN. No user, for eiampie. cxpressed Crcai deligt tin using any of drc commcrcially vailabl. producl dara m.nagcmem vsrems. osr syslernswcre rcgarded as a necessary evit and srilt in n.ed of runing to dctighr tfi. individuat Lser.Useft aeed a vriet of asier to Be tooLt udd?r a .odmon uer ialetace andar open CAD ,@n.wo .. (Ph'Lo cou es of EDs Unig.aphi$.)An interestng finding was a rradeoff of indiriduat, eam, and corDorare-s,id. a*ess roinlorrnation :this is the age-otd pmblem oi rcquiring somc ndividuals lo dc morc *ork for lhebenent ofthe team. You kDoq rhe prcblcm. can mdelsrand my hdriMiring e.t drds.in8s, owhyshould 1 Lakcthelimc 10 make r so ,rl/ can cad rcm, too? rtums our a simitarissueoccurs with drc ale$ panmctric and variafionat and orhcr ne$, CAI) paradil'llrs.MaDy users ad expcrience irh nruhiDle CAD slsrems ard haw.irrlorcd fte De* Dar?rDetric and variational modeling syslens. Us:ls nored nar vendors rc qger o show wha( heirsysEms arc good for bul nol so ortllrighr about &. shoncomings. So, nerc are somc o;ick Drosand cons ot various modeling approache. ascd n usercommentr.r T.adilional 2-D CAD. Still a maiislay h many companies, especialy anong thebig machine cusromizers described eadie. Also requirsd to communicate wirhmany suppliers- But unless h€ prcduct is essentialy 2 lp-D in nature-anrbirec-tulll floor plaff or side vie*s of prinring pr€sses, or exampte {aditional draw-ings aE rLtrost useless or concurrE engincering. Most peoplc arc nor skilted a visudizing real producls fioln 2 D engin€crjng dawings.r 3-D wirefrsnc CAD Usetul n some cases, uch as a sinptified noradon r cartydesign or assembly nodeling. Largely sup€neded by solid and surface modeling.r Surface modelioC Still r€quircd, d sdll cumb€rsome, o.compt€x, scutpredsurfnces. €sr fseamlcssly ntegmred ith orher modeliflg cchniques.I Solid modeling. Now ffl$ and rcliable ernugh-lle besr nertod to. complerefackasnrs. en8irfr-rjrt. i,r'l oImo.lerately onltei pmdrrJs.I rr, , .r'. oli'i..r'jrl Eqri'. r.rxtively xtrNiv. \rtrtxtrriors or..lcquar.t,-rr,rrntr,nf i'tiit rr. Lrilt o,, l.N tof lrge, i,lly delNiled ssenbtics.nd {ill p,N ro .ilu. \rinr nn'prex lrcrscdiDg rr'nccs.- l'rrinFtir.{orn,trntrteri're.tor.'rli.Uvfirr-rrtrr|I'lrc(otidtrx dirg for hci'r'i nr'rl sar $lnj is ov.r tIf n.Nrninp rr' . of h.\y {o )rrirnrcl{r'ize lxj.ts.(nlvr ,rrn,1,^r'ju:s ^n, .(t',i,.,1 rl nrll no.lclliuwbs a-ssodndviry s mritraindl. lrJrv4ycr. frrdrr:ti itv lf'r.,ji. tr) hc nrlividralusernrry bc ofis.t byn' r,' rsc'q rtr) dor't r.nolv whar asslnrflions tc b ittiltoth. n(4p1. [todiariht ..oil')tcx t' modet c,n l]e snDilarl{r lri g loD',\liq/ .B,rlrr frugra'n'ncr's Lnsttr.l,n?rt Nrnt coormcrrrcd ode. paranjerlicornlc|n,t s n Er..llo.l rar he n i;ridtrri wln feels omforrible nh tlje D,tf... rr ry lrnv. fitrirls for sl'arcd,iesip aaroDg otlidc scn,la.ger eanrs.and long Iite €ycles €specially if ihe design ask is nor inherently pararneric.r Yariationsl solid modeling. Tbe grear ope or achieving he beoefits f pal:lmernc modelirg *irhour the dnwbackl olhaving to paramelerize hings upfmnrNcw wo*s well tor 2-D probl€ms. n stil slow and unreliablc tor complex 3,Dproblcms. l]re rcchnology should contirue ro imprcve.r Cdmponent or rropen CAD sotl*are. Basic pbitosophy f providing developcraccessible acccss o the modeler. user nterface, e c. A ows sophislicated uscn/developers b build special-purpose sy$ems for a comp€riaiv€ edge. Most individual uscl: and small companics houldn nve$ in rhis ev€t ofpmgnnming -using macros nd simild cusromizarion ools nsread.  Strategies or aCompetitive Rrpid Dovolopmonr ahdAsilo M,nut cturnrgBapid esponse o customer needs rhrough sho,rerdevelopm nt cycles and speed ro market. Aqile One continuing trend h close integmtion fLlesign nd manufacturinS h.ough CAD/CAM, Ycstcrdry s atter'p{ o break down rlle wau between esian and mmufacturing s today'sinlcrcsl n concurrent ngineering nd eaming. The abilily ro design producrs nce wirh CAD'rnd then use $e same eomelry brnumerical conlrcl pmgramming oes back mor€ han adccadc. Morc cicganL crsions l this stmtcgy and orccllcnt pay backs-wce sen in mosr ofthc pinicipanB. This finding may be due n pan rc $e Unigrnphics ackgmurd of mo$ padici-prnLr, siDce hc system ras ong ed he Ddustry n machining irccdy mm CAD data.While each ornpany xprcssed ts needs nd sl'aegies somewhat ifferen y. Design nsigh lound cighr alcas wherc many pafl'cipat$ pulsllcd a similarsmegy aDd chieved uperiort FoLtr rrategies rc prcducl'onented nd customer-orienled, imed at developingsup.eriorqualuy nd value n fteirproducts-I An additional four stralegies ale prccess-orienled aM intemally orientcd, aimed almore cfficienr and cffcclive moagement ofdesign md engineenng uncrions. 'Ihe eighl key slrategics harcd y three or morc offte nine sludy panicipants rc summanzed n De following ables. The ilsl four sttuegies arc poductand customer riented, whilerlc last our srrearnline ntcmal proccsses. e will explore each f thes eighl stntegies n moredcLail rougirout rhis study epon: Parero J d.,sr5 no*ad'our \ey oou ene, \_ o|ler,oveflook n average companieFwith up ro 20weeks potenti.isavings n the devetopment cycie.h addirion, {icipanrs demonsvared rhree differenr panerns oa apid esponse o clsromer needs,dependrng upon p.od d and modei compterity.CAD/CAM o shonen deve opmenr cycles. Four keyareas denlified. Highest cLrrenr are intdolnq for ner shape parrs. Many other processes Superior lhtogration o,Fom and Function Cohpoiitiv€ a6.rp..ctico.St.drogy3 tmFtom.ntsrionEye-catchinq esig. wiih rhe ilest combinanon otsrYinq, ergonomiG, packaging, erformance, andprodlcibillty Win the clstoher buyi^g decision.A compelrtive edge in design, engineering,..dmanufacturihg by captling and using b€st praclces.lhink of lhese as C AO n.bted cord compeDiilerenl iunctons use diflerenr geornelric crealrontooLs or industial desiqn, ergonomics, engineeing,packagrnq and Five or mo.e tunct'ons lypi@lly compet€ lo Intilence geomety. than the ditliclhes h fe{realron oi geometryare deLays nd poo, design decisionsConpanres often had eadership n a core technot-ogv. A key issle ls lo devetop drore eitective waysro capru.e,,ell|eve, and use ths knowtedge ordes gn and man facruing.Evolution ot CAD rom autohared drafiins lo a selol tools or knowtedqe caprlr€ a.d relrievat t.hetext rsrs 17 dillerent approach€s or enabti.gClose. .tel]laton ol indus$ial design, mechanicalpackaging, nd man facluring funclions Seve6l@mpa.ies are usidg the eme sotid/suriace model belween tu.d ons and hee removed drawlhgs from the crincalpalh. Result:betrer designs, ewer erro's, and fewer deays  Dsrc. .nd M.nut.cru.ihgN€w P.r.digm. to.Increase wondwide market share wilholt dlplicating scarce and costly)lechni€l resources Apragmalic ake on the -vtrrlal enterprise. Beduced uoport equ,ements of CAD/CAMsystems, llowing taffro concentrate n valle- C ltural afd ofganizalional aniers imirthe sharinqof know edg€ n.nuilisite, mulli{ationalcompa.ies Some vendo.s also avoid responsibililytorhelpns to get divers€ CAD syslemsio Companies n t atford 6rqe upport tafls osupporl CAD/CAM. ystems must appear o be neany eit-supportifo, equiring ew paradiqms oivendor lpport. Companies lso need h€lp o man- .ge lechno ogy obsolescence nd egaca/systems.The nternal ocus of suppod must be on high v6lue dded ppli€nons aio.ed o blsiness needs. lmplementation ot CAD ools, standards, andnelwork sep ce-at easr within the co.e development team io improve communicalion belweenwdely d spersed opeGtions and slppliers Several est practices .ne.ged:. benetils f CAD progEmmability. eany move kom maintrames o workstations. inteinational evelopmenr 6sed n ope^. ^ewapproaches to systems upporllntomation Tool' toMahrso Cohp16tityComp€titiv€ WidorproadSt€row 7 Adoprion Effeclive management of producl and modelmixcomplexity a midsl downsizinq oicorpo.ale supporlWrdespread doption ol afio.dabie and casy-to sesystems be.aose .ompanies must nraintain pap6.b.sed systems untrl a critjca mass ol users s connected with new systems.Conoa-ieq [a.e h,gl' msrs and:^lorar;onovaloadin trackinq customers, change, p.oductder^ilio^, naiLfdclJri^g dala, err. We 'ound hrpedilfe.ent sets oi p.oblems and solltions whenprodlct complexily (number ol pa(s in a rypi€lproducr) s plotted vs mode mix complexjty(n mber ol difle.enl products)CAO users have raced a trade olf of powe.and eas.ol se. Many potentiaLusers vold CAD. Oihers fEilto lse the systems 10 hetr porenrial Low rales oiadoption equne du6 enqineering ystems: ono lorCID .sF s a.d ra orher oapF'bd<ad or ro. Lse.q Dllterent traiegies of manaqinA roduct ata,depending rimarily n product mplex yandmodelcomplexity- hree major trategies reidentilied or core echnology nnoEtors,' -leapfros developers. nd big madrine ustomize.s.' No company n the stldy has eliminated pablleldala-based nd paperbased systems Yet somecompaares aod smaller eams n al companies-have made exceptional trides oward l0o percentlse ola 3 D CAD data b3se. Keys o success 6r€
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