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  LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLIMATE AND ENERGY STRATEGY SERIES Energy Efficiency in Affordable Housing A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 2011  Energy Efficiency   EPA’s Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series Te Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series  provides a comprehensive, straightforward overview of green-house gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies for local governments. opics include energy efficiency, transportation, community planning and design, solid waste and materials management, and renewable energy. City, county, territorial, tribal, and regional government staff, and elected officials can use these guides to plan, implement, and evaluate their climate change mitigation and energy projects. Each guide provides an overview of project benefits, policy mechanisms, investments, key stakeholders, and other imple-mentation considerations. Examples and case studies highlighting achievable results from programs implemented in communities across the United States are incorporated throughout the guides.While each guide stands on its own, the entire series contains many interrelated strategies that can be combined to create comprehensive, cost-effective programs that generate multiple benefits. For example, efforts to improve energy efficiency can be combined with transportation and community planning programs to reduce GHG emissions, decrease energy and transportation costs, improve air quality and public health, and enhance quality of life. LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLIMATE AND ENERGY STRATEGY SERIES All documents are available at: www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/resources/strategy-guides.html  . ENERGY EFFICIENCY  ■ Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations  ■ Energy Efficiency in K–12 Schools ■ Energy Efficiency in Affordable Housing  ■ Energy-Efficient Product Procurement  ■ Combined Heat and Power  ■ Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities TRANSPORTATION  ■ ransportation Control Measures COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DESIGN  ■ Smart Growth SOLID WASTE AND MATERIALS MANAGEMENT  ■ Resource Conservation and Recovery  RENEWABLE ENERGY  ■ Green Power Procurement  ■ On-Site Renewable Energy Generation ■ Landfill Gas Energy Please note:  All Web addresses in this document were working as of the time of publication, but links may break over time as sites are reorganized and content is moved.  CONTENTS Acknowledgements  ________________________________________________________________ vExecutive Summary _______________________________________________________________ vii Developing and Implementing Energy Efficiency Programs _______________________________viiEnergy Efficiency in Affordable Housing ________________________________________________________________viiRelationships to Other Guides in the Series______________________________________________________________________ viii 1. Overview  _________________________________________________________________________ 12. Benefits of Energy Efficiency in Affordable Housing  _____________________________ 23. Planning and Design Approaches for Energy Efficiency in Affordable Housing  __ 4 Improving Energy Efficiency in Existing Affordable Housing ________________________________8Evaluate Home Energy Consumption _______________________________________________8Develop an Action Plan to Improve Energy Efficiency ________________________________10Energy Efficiency in New Affordable Housing ____________________________________________________________ 11Energy-Efficient New Home Features ______________________________________________12Planning and Designing Energy-Efficient New Affordable Housing ______________________12Energy Efficiency in Green Affordable Housing ___________________________________________________________ 13 4. Key Participants  ________________________________________________________________ 155. Foundations for Program Development  ________________________________________ 186. Strategies for Effective Program Implementation  ______________________________ 21 Strategies for Working with Developers and Other Affordable Housing Stakeholders in the Community________________________________21Strategies for Working with National, State, and Local Government Agencies ________________23 7. Investment and Financing Opportunities  ______________________________________ 24 Investment _______________________________________________________________________25Financing _________________________________________________________________________27Financial Vehicles ______________________________________________________________27Funding Sources _______________________________________________________________29  8. Federal, State, and Other Program Resources  __________________________________ 32 Federal Programs __________________________________________________________________32State Programs ____________________________________________________________________33Other Programs ___________________________________________________________________34 9. Case Studies  ____________________________________________________________________ 36 Philadelphia Housing Authority—Conserve Energy-Preserve Public Housing ________________36Program Initiation ______________________________________________________________36Program Features _______________________________________________________________36Program Results ________________________________________________________________37Boston, Massachusetts—Green Affordable Housing Program ______________________________37Program Initiation ______________________________________________________________37 10. Additional Examples and Information Resources  _____________________________ 38 Program Features _______________________________________________________________38Program Results ________________________________________________________________38 11. References  ____________________________________________________________________ 44
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