amrit kaurcomputer generation.doc

RAYAT COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, RAILMAJRA Subject :- ICT. Topic :- Generations of Computers. Submitted To: Submitted B y: Mrs. Rekha Amrit Kaur B.e !e #D R$%% N$#&'' First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to u
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  RAYAT COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, RAILMAJRA Subject :- ICT. Topic :-Generations of Computers. Submitted To: Submitted B  y: Mrs. Rekha Amrit Kaur B.e !e #DR$%% N$#&''  First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a greatdeal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming languageunderstood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Inputwas based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.The UI! # and $I # computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UI! #was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.%. #ensus &ureau in '()'. First Generation (vacuum tube circuits) First Ge(erati$( $m)uters are hara terise *+ the use $ -a uum tu*es. These -a uum tu*es ere use$r a% u%ati$( as e%% as st$ra/e a( $(tr$%. Later, ma/(eti ta)es a( ma/(eti rums ere im)%eme(teas st$ra/e meia. The irst -a uum tu*e $m)uter, ENIAC, as e-e%$)e *+ U! arm+ $ri(a( e t$ a% u%ate *a%%isti iri(/ ta*%es i( 00II. It ha a*$ut &1 ''' -a uum tu*es. The ma hi(e ei/he 2' t$(s, $-ere a*$ut &''' s3uare eet $ %$$r, a( $(sume &2' $r &4' ki%$atts $ e%e tri it+. The ENIAC5s %$ k s)ee as a*$ut &'' k67. I( aiti$( t$ *a%%isti s, the ENIAC5s ie% $ a))%i ati$( i( %ue eather  )rei ti$(, at$mi #e(er/+ a% u%ati$(s, $smi #ra+ stuies, therma% i/(iti$(, ra($m#(um*er stuies, i(#tu((e% esi/(, a( $ther s ie(tii uses. N$ e%e tr$(i $m)uters ere *ei(/ a))%ie t$ $mmer ia% )r$*%ems u(ti% a*$ut &89& .  Vacuum tube circuit This is a( e:am)%e $ a -a uum tu*e *ase ir uit use i( a irst /e(erati$( $m)uter ;a Burr$u/hs<, )i ture here (e:t t$ a tra(sist$r *ase ir uit, ith simi%ar u( ti$(a%it+, r$m a se $( /e(erati$( $m)uter ;the IBM &=>'<. The -a uum tu*es ;at the t$) $ the ir uit< ha-e *ee( ama/e *e ause $ $-erheati(/. 0e sus)e t that this )arti u%ar ir uit is a 4#*it re/ister. Cir uits reate i this a+ eree:treme%+ *u%k+. T$ reate a 2>#*it ADD ir uit $u% re3uire ?'' %$/i /ates usi(/ a t$ta% $ &,9'4tra(sist$rs. I( -a uum tu*e *ase $m)uters, this ma(+ -a uum tu*es $u% take u) a s)a e a*$ut the si7e$ a reri/erat$r. Vacuum tube This is a sma%% -a uum tu*e, use i( irst /e(erati$( $m)uters. 6ere +$u a( %ear%+ see the ee t $ $-erheati(/, %ea-i(/ a *%a k stai( $( the i(sie $ the/%ass tu*e. C$(sta(t $-erheati(/ a( *ur($ut i( the -a uum tu*es $ ENIAC, theirst e%e tr$(i $m)uti(/ e-i e, i( &841 %e AT@T Be%% Te%e)h$(e La*$rat$r+e(/i(eers J$h( Baree(, 0i%%iam !h$ k%e+, a( 0a%ter Brattai( t$ seek $ut asuita*%e a%ter(ati-e $r the $mmer ia%%+ u(re%ia*%e -a uum tu*e. The threesu essu%%+ em$(strate the )ri( i)%e $ am)%i+i(/ a( e%e tri a% urre(t usi(/ as$%i semi $(u ti(/ materia%, si%i $(, $rmi(/ the *asi $( e)t *ehi( thetra(sist$r.    Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor wasinvented in '(*+ but did not see widespread use in computers until the late '()s. The transistor was far superior tothe vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliablethan their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subected thecomputer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. %econd-generation computers still relied onpunched cards for input and printouts for output.%econd-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. igh-level programming languageswere also beingdeveloped at this time, such as early versions of #/&/0 and F/1T1 . These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Transistor computer A   transistor computer   is a  computer hi h uses is rete  transistors  i(stea $   vacuum tubes . The irst/e(erati$( $ e%e tr$(i $m)uters use -a uum tu*es, hi h /e(erate %ar/e am$u(ts $ heat, ere *u%k+, a(ere u(re%ia*%e. A se $( /e(erati$( $ $m)uters, thr$u/h the %ate &89's a( &8='s eature *$ars i%%eith i(i-iua% tra(sist$rs a(  magnetic memory cores . These ma hi(es remai(e the mai(stream esi/( i(t$the %ate &8='s, he(  integrated circuits  starte a))eari(/ a( %e t$ the thir /e(erati$( ma hi(es. The first transistor computer The University of 2anchester3s experimental Transistor #omputer was first operational in ovember '()4 and it is widely believed to be the firsttransistor computer to come into operation anywhere in the world. There were two versions of the Transistor #omputer, the prototype,operational in '()4, and the full-si5e version, commissioned in pril '()). The '()4 machine had (6 point-contact transistors and )) diodes, manufactured by %T#. It had a *7-bit machine word. 8'9  The '()) machine had a total of 6 point-contact transistors and '4 point diodes, 8'9  which resulted in a power consumption of ') watts. There were considerable reliability problems with the early batches of transistors and theaverage error free run in '()) was only '.) hours. The #omputer also used a small number of tubes in its clock generator, so it was not thefirst fully transistori5ed machine. 869 The design of a full-si5e Transistor #omputer was subse:uently adopted by the 2anchester  firm of 2etropolitan-!ickers, who changed all the circuits to more reliable types of  unction transistors. 8'9  The production version was known as the 2etrovick () and was built from '(); to theextent of six 8'9  or seven machines, 849  which were <used commercially within the company< 849  or <mainly for internal use.
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