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  5 2 THEPUBLICI N TEREST Purposeandplanning inforeignpolicy ZBIGNI E WBRZEZIN SK ITEpurp o seofpla n ningp o licyistofusethoughtwitha c ti o n . Themoretrivialtheissueandthemorespecifictheproposedaction , theeasierthefusion.Combiningdeliberateactionwithsustainedforethoughtisaccordinglyespeciallydifficultforapolicyoperatingonaglobalscale.Worldaffairsarenoteasilyreducibletoafewconcepts;intheirturn,sweepingandfre-quentlybanalgeneralitiesdonotprovidehelpfulguidestospecificactions.Globalinvolvementrequiresreactingquicklytoamyriad o fdiversesituations , eachseemingly--andofteninfact--u n ique . Theall-too-frequentresultisnotpolicy , butanillusionofpolicy:well-polishedclichesmaskbelatedreactionstodynamicandnovelevents. P lanning--thefusi ono fthoughtandaction--encountersfewerdifficultiesinasettinginwhichinterestsaremoreclearlydefinedbyestablishedtraditions,thelimitsofgeography , andrelativelymodestresources.Historicalcontinuityandclearlydefinableprioritiespermitmoreprecisedefinitionoffundamentalprinciples.Theyprovideaconceptualframeworkwithinwhichthepolicyplanneroperates,permittinghimtofocusonwhatiscentrallyimportant.Specificplansthenhaveacommonbase,andarepartofaninte-gratedwhole.ThustheforeignpolicyofFrance,despitethe tousazimuts strategy,stillgivesprimacytothemaintenanceoftheEuro-peanequilibriumandhenceispreoccupiedwiththebalancingof  PURPOSEAND P LANNIN G INFOREI G NPOLICY 58 G ermanyand R u s sia.Poland,loc a tedbetweenBerlinan d Moscow , hasbee n c o mpelledbyge o pol i t i calcircumstancestobase i tssecur-itysince1945onaclosealliancewiththemuchmorepowerfulSo-vietUnion.EventheSovietUnion,despiteitsnuclearpowerandideologicalaspirations,necessarilyfocusesprimaryattentionontworegionalar e asofmostimmediateconcerntoit:CentralEuropeandChina.MakingcertainthatneitheriscontrolledbyforceshostiletoMoscowisthepointofdepartureforotherpreoccupations. I.Theproblemofscale TheAmericanpol i cy-plannerfindshimselfinaratherdifferentposition.Americanpower,inallofitsforms(andnotonlythemili-tary),createsanintimateU.S.involvementintheaffairsoftheentireglobe,andareverseinvolvementoftheworldinAmericanaffairs.Americansocietyistodaythemostgloballyoriented.MoreAmeri-canstraveltomorespotsintheworldthanpeoplefromanyothernation.Some2millionAmericansworkabroadmnotasimmigrantswhoarepartofanothercommunity,butasAmericans.Americanforeigninvestmenthasnopeer,whereasthenewinternationalcor-porations,mostlyAmericaninorigin,createanewcosmopolitancorporateelitelargelyinfluencedbyAmericanmodesofthoughtandvalues.Americanmagazines-- T/me , Newsweek, and Reader ' sDi g est marereadregularlybytensofmillionsofnon-Americans , andth e ystimulateanintensesenseofparti c ipationin A mericanlife,Americanpolitics,andAmericanproblems.UnliketheSovietUnion,whichincreasinglyevokesboredom,nooneisindifferenttoAmerica--whetherthroughenvy,oradmiration,orhatred.Thereissimplynoothersocietythatissomuchpartoftheworld.ThisconditionisnotnecessarilyablessingfortheAmericanpolicy-maker.Aforeignpolicythatisglobalinscoperunsthehighriskofbe c omingintellectuallyparalyzedbytheveryscopeofitsinvolvement,andofbecomingdilutedinmeaningbythediversityofthetasksitfaces.Tobesure,theAmericanpolicy-makerisrela-tivelyfreeoftheconfiningshacklesofneighboringregionalanimosi-ties.UnlikehisSovietcounterpart,whosefirstmorningglanceisworriedlydirectedatBerlinandatPeking(evenifthereafterfocusedonWashington),theAmericanpolicy-makerisrelativelyrelaxedaboutOttawaandMexicoCity.But,inpartbecausehehasnoclearpointofd e parture,histaskisvastlymorecomplicatedandhispri-oriti e smorefuzzy.Comingfromasocietytraditionallysuspiciousofconceptualthought(wherea problem-solving approachisheldinesteemandconceptsaredenigratedas intellectualcubbyholes ),shapedbyalegalandpragmatictraditionthatstressesthecasemethodandtheimportanceofprecedents,theunderstandablecon-dit i on e dreflexofthepolicy-mak e ristouniversalizefromthesuccess  54 T H E PUBLICINTEREST ofspe c ifi c p o l i cies,form u lateda n dappliedinthe pre-gl o bal ageofAmericanforeignpolicy.America   sentranceintotheglobalarenahadbeenprecipitatedbyeventslimitedintimeandbyachallengespecificincharacter.WorldWarIIandsubsequentSovietaggressiveness,eachinadifferentway,couldevokeanAmericanresponsethatdrewonthatforwhichAmericaisfamous:thecapacityforahighlyfocused,concrete , massive,andsuperblyorganizedactiononbehalfofpreciselyde-finedgoals.Winningthewar,reconstructingEurope,containingSovietpower--theseobjectivescouldbedefinedprecisely,andsuccessorfailureinobtainingthemmeasuredwithsimilarprecision.TheMarshallPlanandthecontainr a entofRussiawereimaginativeandtimelyresponsestoaspecificregionalchallenge.Atthetime , theUnitedStatesassignedthehighestprioritytoEuropeanaffairs.BothresponsesnotonlyreflectedAmericanneeds,buteachwasrelevanthistoricallytotheprevailingconditions.AplanforthecooperativeregenerationofEuropecouldtaptheenormousskillsandintelligenceoftheEuropeansinordertorevitalizeaneconomythat , thoughbadlydestroyed,stillpossessedthesecondmostad-vancedindustrialinfrastructureintheworld.ThecontainmentofRussia , reinforcedbyEuropeanreconstruction,addresseditselftoathreatthatwasclearlydefinableanddelimitable.Yetsterilityisoftenthecostofsuccess.George K ennanrecountsthat foryearsthereafter , thoseofuswhohadhadtodowiththeoriginalMarshallPlanconceptwouldbeplaguedwithdemandsfromthecongressionalsidethatwedrawuporinspiresimilarpro-gramsforChina,fortheMiddleEast,orforLatinAmerica. Simi-larly,formanypolicy-makersthecontainmentofthephysicalpowerofamajorstatebecamethemodelofhowtocontainthespreadofrevolutionaryideologyinanideologyinmanyplacesreinforcedbyviolentnationalistpassions.ThesuddentransformationofAmerica--sometimebetween1955and1965---fromapowerpreoccupiedwithAtlantic-Europeanaffairsintoaglobaloneleftlittletimebuttouniversalizethespecific. Globalinvolvement JohnF.Kennedywasthefirst 'globalist presidentoftheUnitedStates.Roosevelt,forallhisinternationalism,essentiallybelievedinan1815-likeglobalarrangement,withspecificspheresofinfluencetobesharedbythe BigFour. Trumanprimarilyrespondedtoaspecificchallengeandhispoliciesindicatedaclearregionalpriority.Eisenhowercontinuedonthesamecourse , occasionallyapplyingEuropeanprecedentstootherregions.UnderTruman,themostprominentpolicy-plannerwasGeorge K ennanuaSovietexpert;underEisenhower , RobertR.Bowie,apromoterofEuropeanand  PURPOSEANDPLANNINGINFOREIGNPOLICY55 Atlanticunity;underKennedy,WaltW.R o st o w,athe or ist o fgl o balconflictandtheconceptualizerofstagesofeconomicdevelopment.TheseshiftsweresymptomaticofthechangingU.S.role.WithKen-nedycameasensethateverycontinentandeverypeoplehadtherighttoexpectleadershipandinspirationfromAmericaandthatAmericaowedanalmostequalsenseofinvolvementtoeverycon-tinentandeverypeople.Hisevocativestyle--insomewaysappeal-ingmoretoemotionthantointellect--stressedtheuniversalhuman-ismoftheAmericanmission,whereashisromanticfascinationwithcounterinsurgencyreflectedthepreoccupationwithaneffectiveworldwideresponsetorevolutionarycommunism.TheMarshallPlanandthepolicyofcontainmentfoundtheirglobalequivalentsinthePeaceCorpsandtheSpecialForces.Globalinvolvement,however,isqualitativelydifferentfromforeignpolicyasknownsofar.Itdoesnotlenditselfeasilytoac-ceptableandenduringpriorities;itisinimicaltoclearcutformulasandhostiletotraditionalpreferences.Globalinvolvement,moreover,resistsprecisemeasurementsofsuccessandfailure.IsthesupportandsympathyofagivengovernmentfortheUnitedStatesmoreimportantthanacountry'srateofeconomicdevelopment?IsitmoredesirablethatBrazil   sGrossNationalProductgrowat5percentperannumthanthatitsgovernmentsupporttheUnitedStateswithregardtoCubaandtohemisphericsecurity?Doesitmakeanydif-ferencethatIndia'ssympathiesinforeignaffairsaremorefrequentlywithMoscowthanwithWashingtonsolongasIndiadevelopsstead-ilyandsafeguardsitsdemocraticorder?Areanyplacesintheworldstill strategically important,giventherevolutioninweaponssys-tems?Areanyplacespoliticallyunimportant,andifso,whatarethecriteriaforsodefiningthemandthewaysofmakingcertainthatpolitically moreimportant areasarenotcompromisedbywritingoffthe unimportant ones?Moredifficultstillisthetaskofintegratingintoameaningfulwholetheenormouslyvariedandcountlessspecificprograms,pol-icies,andgoalstheUnitedStatesispursuingdailyallovertheglobe.Whatistheircommonpurpose?Whyaretheybeingpursued,andwhicharemoreimportantthanothers?IstheirimportanceprimarilyamatteroftherelativepowerpositionoftheirgivensponsorinWashington--beittheDefenseDepartmentorAID?Cantherebetargets,progresstowardwhichcanbe measured yearbyyear?AndwhatwouldhappenifsuddenlytheUnitedStatesdecidedtotermi-nate90percentofitsglobalactivities?Isavoidingthepotentialcon-sequence---whateveritmaybe----ofthathypotheticalactiontheprimarypurposeofalltheseactivities?And,ifthatisso,isanegativegoalgoodenoughtosustain,overaprolongedperiodoftime,aninvolvementintheworldwithoutprecedentinscope,effort,andmoney?
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