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Anatomy and physiology

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anatomy and its functions
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  HELPFUL FACTS ON HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGYAnatomy is the study of the functional areas or parts of human body. Physiology is the study of biological and chemical processes in the human body.Cells are the simplest units of living matter that can maintain life and reproduce themselves. Every person is made up of billions of cells. A cell is composed of 3 major parts: a) the cell membrane; b) the cell nucleus; (main body) and c) cytoplasm (liquid).HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy22 Handbook on Spa and MassageThe human body can be likened to the universe  made up of very small parts organized to function as a unit  , according to Susan Salvo in her Book,  Massage Therapy, Principles and Practice.  The stages of life are as follows:a) Chemical stage   deals with the biochemistry of the body.b) Cellular stage   deals with cells and its internal processes.c) Tissue stage   group of cells that performs specific functions.d) Organ stage   contains two or more groups that carry on specific functions.e) Organism stage   highest stage of organization presenting a living individual.The human body systems:A. Skeletal system - it consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons and accounts for about 20 percent of the body weight. They provide a rigid HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy23 Handbook on Spa and Massageframe work, known as the skeleton, that support and protect the soft organs of the body. The large bones of the lower limbs support the trunk when standing. The skeleton also protects the soft body parts. The fused bones of the cranium surround the brain to protect it from injury. Vertebrae surround and protect the spinal cord and bones of the rib cage help protect the heart and lungs of the thorax.Fast facts: ? There are 206 bones in the human body.? The bone which is commonly broken is the clavicle, also called the collar bone.? Bones help in the production of white and red blood cells.B. Muscular System   gives shape to the individual?s physique. It also helps in the movement of the body by contraction.Fast facts:? An adult person have at least 650  HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy24 Handbook on Spa and Massagemuscles in his body. ? Satorius muscle, found between thehip and the inner thigh is considered to be the longest muscle. ? Stapedius, found in the middle of the ear , is the smallest muscle.C. Integumentary system or skin system   is the organ system that includes the skin, hair, nails and related glands.Fast facts:? Skin is the largest organ in the human body.? It s weight is 12-15% of the total body weight.? The three layers of the skin are: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat.? The dermis is sometimes called the true skin because it consists of elastic layers containingblood vessels that nourish the skin.D. Circulatory system - is composed of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. It is the organ system that passes HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy25 Handbook on Spa and Massagenutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells and other nutrients to and from cells of the body. Blood is pumped by the heart around a closed circuit ofvessels as it passes again and again through the various circulations of the body.Fast facts:? It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body. ? Blood travels in veins back to the right side of the heart. ? The average size of a heart is as big as one?s own fist. ? The heart is located at the middle part of the chest andtilted a little towards the left.E. Lymphatic and immune system - consists of organs, ducts, and nodes. It is home to lymphocytes, small white blood cells that are the key players in the immune system. The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by disease causing microorganisms such as bacteria,viruses, parasites, and fungi.HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy26 Handbook on Spa and MassageFast facts:? The spleen is the largest organ in the lymphatic system ? Enlarged lymph nodes are a sign of infection in colds and sore throats. ? The system acts life a filter that removes  foreign bodies to preventInfections.F. Digestive system   is a series of complexorgans and glands that process food for utilization of body cells. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine rectum and anus. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are major accessory organs that have a role in digestion.Fast facts:? The human mouth can produce 3 pints of saliva a day.? Chewing is the first stage of digestion.? The enzymes in the mouth help break down food.HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy27 Handbook on Spa and MassageDiagram of the digestive systemG. Respiratory system   helps supply blood with oxygen for transport to all parts of the body. Itworks with the circulatory system to provide this oxygen and to remove the waste products of metabolism. It also helps to regulate pH of the blood. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs are parts of the respiratory system. Fast facts:? In human beings, the right lung is larger than the left lung to accommodate the heart.HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy28 Handbook on Spa and Massage? The droplets that come out from coughing are spread up to 3 feet. People are advised to cover the mouth when coughing.Diagram of the respiratory systemH. Urinary system   is the organ system that produces, stores and eliminates urine and waste products of cellular metabolism. It includes the two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, urethra and two sphincter muscles. The principal function of the urinary system is to maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal limits. HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy29 Handbook on Spa and MassageFast facts:? The health status of a person can be determined through his/her urine.? Urine can be tested to find out if a person has urinary tract infection.? The ancient Romans used urine as a bleaching agent in washing clothes.I. Nervous system - is responsible for sending, receiving and processingof nerve impulses in the body. It is the major controlling, regulatory, and communicating system in the body. It is the center of all mental activity including thought, learning, and memory. Through its receptors, the nervous system keeps us in touch with our environment,  both external and internal. It consist of two parts: The central nervous system (main) and the peripheral nervous system (accessory). Fast facts:? There are millions of nerve cells in the human body.? As we grow older, the brain loses a gram of its weight every year. HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy30 Handbook on Spa and Massage? The nervous system transmits nerve impulses at a tremendous speed of 100 meters per second.J. Endocrine system   acts through chemical messengers called hormones that influence growth, development, and metabolic activities. Itcoordinates the activities of the organ systems. The pituitary gland at the base of the brain is the master gland.Fast facts:? A specialist in the endocrine system is an endocrinologist? The sex hormones are produced in the gonads. Gonads are ovaries in females, testes in males.? The endocrine system influences cell and function of the bodyK. Reproductive system - is a system within an organism which works together toward reproduction. It consists of gonads, associated ducts and external genital. Within the context of producing offspring, the reproductive system has four functions:? To produce egg and sperm cell.? To transport and sustain these cells HIMAS Asian Wellness and Spa Academy31 Handbook on Spa and Massage? To nurture the developing offspring? To produce hormonesFast facts:? The urologist is a physician that specializes in male reproductive system. ? The specialist on women?s reproductive system is called a gynecologist. ? Dysmenorrhea is the term called  painful? or difficult menstruation?.
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