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  Crows  (/k r o ʊ /) are members of a widely distributed genus of birds, Corvus , in the familyCorvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small  pigeon-size  a!kdaws ( urasian and #aurian) to the Common Raven of the $olar!ti! region and %hi!k-billed Raven of the highlands of thiopia, the &' or so members of this genus o!!ur on all temperate !ontinents e!ept outh *meri!a, and several islands. +n urope, the word !row is used to refer to the Carrion Crow or the $ooded Crow, while in orth *meri!a it is used for the *meri!an Crow or the  orthwestern Crow. Elephants  are large mammals of the family lephantidae and the order robos!idea. %raditionally, two spe!ies are re!ognised, the *fri!an elephant (  Loxodonta africana ) and the *sian elephant (  Elephas maximus ), although some eviden!e suggests that *fri!an  bush elephants and *fri!an forest elephants are separate spe!ies (  L. africana  and  L. cyclotis  respe!tively). lephants are s!attered throughout sub-aharan *fri!a, outh *sia, and outheast *sia.  lephantidae are the only surviving family of the order robos!idea other, now etin!t, families of the order in!lude mammoths and mastodons. %he largest living terrestrial animals, male *fri!an elephants !an rea!h a height of & m (01 ft) and weigh 2,''' kg (03,''' lb). *ll elephants have several distin!tive features the most notable of whi!h is a long  probos!is or trunk used for many purposes, parti!ularly for grasping obe!ts. +n addition to their trunks, their in!isors grow into tusks, whi!h serve as tools for moving obe!ts and digging and as weapons for fighting. %he elephant4slarge ear flaps help to !ontrol the temperature of its body. *fri!an elephants have larger ears and !on!ave ba!ks while *sian elephants have smaller ears and !onve or level  ba!ks. Crocodiles  (subfamily Crocodylinae ) or true crocodiles  are large a5uati! reptiles that live throughout the tropi!s in *fri!a, *sia, the *meri!as and *ustralia. Cro!odylinae, in whi!h all its members are !onsidered true !ro!odiles, is !lassified as a biologi!al subfamily. * broader sense of the term !ro!odile, Cro!odylidae that in!ludes Tomistoma  is not used in this arti!le. %he term !ro!odile here applies only to the spe!ies within the subfamily of Cro!odylinae. %he term is sometimes used even more loosely to in!lude all etant members of the order  Cro!odilia, whi!h in!ludes Tomistoma , the alligators and !aimans (family *lligatoridae), the gharials (family 6avialidae), and all other living and fossil Cro!odylomorpha.* monkey  is a non-human  primate of the $aplorrhini suborder and simian infraorder, either an 7ld 8orld monkey or a  ew 8orld monkey, but sometimes e!luding non- human hominoids. %here are about 9:' known living spe!ies of monkey. ;any are arboreal, although there are spe!ies that live primarily on the ground, su!h as  baboons. ;onkeys are generally !onsidered to be intelligent. <nlike apes, monkeys usually have tails. %ailless monkeys may be !alled apes, in!orre!tly a!!ording to modern usage thusthe tailless =arbary ma!a5ue is !alled the =arbary ape. Squirrels  belong to family  Sciuridae  of small or medium-size rodents. %he family in!ludes tree s5uirrels, ground s5uirrels, !hipmunks, marmots (in!luding wood!hu!ks), flying s5uirrels, and  prairie dogs. 5uirrels are indigenous to the *meri!as, urasia, and *fri!a, and have been introdu!ed to *ustralia. >0?  %he earliest known s5uirrels date from the o!ene and are most !losely related to the mountain beaver  and to the dormouse  among living rodent families.%he Indian Pond Heron  or Paddybird  (  Ardeola grayii ) is a small heron. +t is of 7ld 8orld srcins, breeding in southern +ran and east to akistan,+ndia, =urma, =angladesh   and ri @anka. %hey are widespread and !ommon but !an be easily missed when they stalk prey at the edge of small water-bodies or even when they roost !lose to human habitations. %hey are however distin!tive when they take off with bright white wings flashing in !ontrast to the !rypti! streaked olive and brown !olours of the body. %heir !amouflage is so e!ellent that they will !lose approa!h before taking to flight, a  behaviour whi!h has resulted in folk names and beliefs that the birds are short-sighted or  blind. >9?>1? %he Cockatiel  (  Nymphicus hollandicus ), also known as the Quarrion  and the Weiro , is amember of the !o!katoo family endemi! to *ustralia. %hey are prized as a household  pet  and !ompanion parrot throughout the world and are relatively easy to breed. *s a !aged  bird, !o!katiels are se!ond in popularity only to the =udgerigar . >9? %he !o!katiel is the only member of the genus   Nymphicus . +t was previously !onsidered a !rested parrot or small !o!katoo however, more re!ent mole!ular studies have assignedit to its own uni5ue Co!katoo subfamily  Nymphicinae . +t is, therefore, now !lassified as the smallest of the Ca!atuidae (Co!katoo family). Co!katiels are native to *ustralia, and favour the *ustralian wetlands, s!rublands, and bush lands. Muntjacs , also known as barkin deer  and Mastreani deer , are small deer  of the genus  Muntiacus . ;unta!s are the oldest known deer, appearing 03A13 million years ago, with remains found in ;io!ene deposits in Bran!e, 6ermany >0?  and oland. >9? !escription %he present-day spe!ies are native to outh *sia and !an be found in ri @anka, outhern China, %aiwan, apan (=oso eninsula and Dshima +sland), +ndia and +ndonesian islands. %hey are also found in the lower $imalayas and in =urma. +nhabiting tropi!al regions, the deer have no seasonal rut and mating !an take pla!e at any time of year this  behaviour is retained by populations introdu!ed to temperate !ountries.%he nilai  (  Boselaphus tragocamelus ), sometimes !alled nilgau , is the largest *sian antelope. +t is one of the most !ommonly seen wild animals of !entral and northern +ndia, often seen in farmland or s!rub forest. %he mature male appears o-like and is also known as the blue bull . * blue bull is !alled a nil gai  or nilgai  in +ndia, from nil   meaning  blue and  gai  meaning a bovine animal (literally 4!ow4). +t is also present in parts of southern epal and eastern akistan. %he spe!ies has be!ome etin!t in =angladesh. +t was known as the nilghor   ( nil   E blue,  ghor   E horse) during the rule of  *urangzeb in the ;ughal era. >9?  +t is the only member of genus  Boselaphus . >1?>&? %he chital  or cheetal  (  Axis axis ), >9?  also known as chital deer , spotted deer  or a is deer ,is a deer  whi!h !ommonly inhabits wooded regions of +ndia, ri @anka,  epal,  =angladesh, =hutan, and in small numbers in akistan. %he !hital goes by various names in +ndia, among whi!h in!ludeF chital horin  in =engali, thith muwa  in inhalese,  jinke  in Gannada,  pulli maan  in %amil and ;alayalam, duppi  in %elugu,  phutuki horin  in *ssamese, haranharin  in ;arathi, and hiran  in $indi/<rdu (the latter two derived from harini , the anskrit !ognate for 4deer4). +t is the most !ommon deer spe!ies in +ndian  forests. %he name !hital !omes from the =engali word chitral   (  চতল  )/ chitra  (  চত  ), whi!h means spotted. %he !hital is monotypi! within the genus  Axis , but this genus has also in!luded three spe!ies that now are pla!ed in  !yelaphus   based on geneti! eviden!e. >1?>&? %he hippopotamus  (  !ippopotamus amphi ius ), or hippo , from the an!ient 6reek  for river horse ( ἱ HHIHJKLMIN), is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-aharan *fri!a, and one of only two etant spe!ies in the family $ippopotamidae (the other is the  pygmy hippopotamus). *fter the elephant and rhino!eros, the hippopotamus is the third- largest type of land mammal and the heaviest etant artioda!tyl. #espite their physi!al resemblan!e to  pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, their !losest living relatives are !eta!eans (whales,  porpoises, et!.) from whi!h they diverged about 33 million years ago. %he !ommon an!estor of whales and hippos split from other even-toed ungulates around :' million years ago. %he earliest known hippopotamus fossils, belonging to the genus   #enyapotamus  in *fri!a, date to around 0: million years ago.  Python regius  is a nonvenomous  python spe!ies found in *fri!a. %his is the smallest of the *fri!an pythons and is popular in the pet trade, largely due to its typi!ally do!ile temperament. o subspe!ies are !urrently re!ognized. >9?  +t is also known as royal python or ball python . >1?  %he name ball python refers to the animal4s tenden!y to !url into a  ball when stressed or frightened. >&?  %he name royal python (from the @atin regius ) !omes from the fa!t that rulers in *fri!a would wear the python as ewelry. Hyenas  or hyaenas  (from 6reek   ὕ LOPL Q h$aina >0? ) are the animals of the family Hyaenidae  /h a ɪ ˈ ɛ n ɨ d i ː  / of the feliform suborder  of the Carnivora. 8ith only four spe!ies, it is the fourth-smallest  biologi!al family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the !lass ;ammalia. >9?  #espite their low diversity, hyenas are uni5ue and vital !omponents tomost *fri!an and some *sian e!osystems. >1? *lthough  phylogeneti!ally !lose to felines and viverrids, hyenas are behaviourally and morphologi!ally similar to !anines in several aspe!ts both hyenas and !anines are nonarboreal, !ursorial hunters that !at!h prey with their teeth rather than !laws. =oth eat food 5ui!kly and may store it, and their !alloused feet with large, blunt, nonretra!table nails are adapted for running and making sharp turns. $owever, the hyenas4 grooming, s!ent marking, defe!ating habits, mating, and parental behaviour are !onsistent with the  behaviour of other feliforms. >&?   #ears  are mammals of the family  $rsidae . %hey are !aniforms, or doglike !arnivorans, with the  pinnipeds being their !losest living relatives. *lthough only eight spe!ies of  bears are etant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the  orthern $emisphere and partially in the outhern $emisphere. =ears are found on the !ontinents of  orth *meri!a, outh *meri!a,  urope, and *sia. Common !hara!teristi!s of modern bears in!lude large bodies with sto!ky legs, long snouts, shaggy hair,  plantigrade paws with five nonretra!tile !laws, and short tails. %he  polar bear  is mostly !arnivorous, the giant panda feeds almost entirely on  bamboo, and the remaining si spe!ies are omnivorous with varied diets.  %he %&rican 'rey Parrot  (  %sittacus erithacus ), also known as the 'rey Parrot , is a  parrot found in the primary and se!ondary rainforest of 8est and Central *fri!a. perts regard it as one of the most intelligent birds in the world. %hey feed primarily on palm nuts, seeds, fruits, and leafy matter, but have also been observed eating snails. %heir overall gentle nature and their in!lination and ability to mimi! spee!h have made them  popular pets, whi!h has led many to be !aptured from the wild and sold into the pet trade.%he *fri!an 6rey arrot is listed on C+%  *ppendi ++, whi!h restri!ts trade of wild- !aught spe!ies be!ause wild populations !annot sustain trapping for the pet trade.%he Military Macaw  (  Ara militaris ) is a large parrot and a medium-sized member of the ma!aw genus. %hough !onsidered vulnerable as a wild spe!ies, it is still !ommonly foundin the pet trade industry. * predominantly green bird, it is found in the forests of ;ei!o and outh *meri!a.%he 'olden Pheasant  or (Chinese Pheasant( , ( &hrysolophus pictus ) is a gamebird of the order 6alliformes (gallina!eous birds) and the family hasianidae. +t is native to forests in mountainous areas of western China, but feral populations have been established in the <nited Gingdom and elsewhere. +n ngland they may be found in  ast *nglia in the dense forest lands!ape of the =re!kland. %he adult male is 'A0'3 !m in length, its tail a!!ounting for two-thirds of the total length. +t is unmistakable with its golden !rest and rump and bright red body. %he deep orange !ape !an be spread in display, appearing as an alternating bla!k and orange fan that !overs all of the fa!e e!ept its bright yellow eye with a pinpoint bla!k pupil.%he 'rey Peacock)Pheasant  (  %olyplectron icalcaratum ), also known as #urmese Peacock)Pheasant , is a large outheast *sian member of the order  6alliformes. +t is the national bird of ;yanmar . !escription +t is a large  pheasant, up to 2: !m long and greyish brown with finely spotted green eyespots, an elongated bushy !rest, bare pink or yellow fa!ial skin, white throat, and greyiris,  bill and legs. %he sees are rather similar, but the female is smaller, darker and less ornamented than the male. %he young resemble the female.%he Indian Pea&owl  or #lue Pea&owl  (  %a'o cristatus ) is a large and brightly !oloured  bird of the  pheasant family native to outh *sia, but introdu!ed and semi-feral in many other parts of the world. %he spe!ies was first named and des!ribed by @innaeus in 023S. %he name  %a'o cristatus  is still in use now. %he male pea!o!k is predominantly blue witha fan-like !rest of spatula-tipped wire-like feathers and is best known for the long train made up of elongated upper-tail !overt feathers whi!h bear !olourful eyespots. %hese stiff and elongated feathers are raised into a fan and 5uivered in a display during !ourtship.
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