Education

Annotated Glossary

Description
1. AnnotatedAnnotated GlossaryGlossary Being an explanation of the key terms ofBeing an explanation of the key terms of Educational Psychology as outlined inEducational…
Categories
Published
of 56
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. AnnotatedAnnotated GlossaryGlossary Being an explanation of the key terms ofBeing an explanation of the key terms of Educational Psychology as outlined inEducational Psychology as outlined in John F. Durkin’s book,John F. Durkin’s book, Cases inCases in Educational PsychologyEducational Psychology Compiled by Gordon LambieCompiled by Gordon Lambie February 2009February 2009
  • 2. Table of ContentsTable of Contents  Chapter 1 -Chapter 1 - Education and PsychologyEducation and Psychology  Chapter 2 - The Nature of EvidenceChapter 2 - The Nature of Evidence  Chapter 3 - Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, and EnvironmentChapter 3 - Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, and Environment  Chapter 4 - Brain and Biological DevelopmentChapter 4 - Brain and Biological Development  Chapter 5 - Cognitive and Language DevelopmentChapter 5 - Cognitive and Language Development  Chapter 6 - Social, Emotional, and Moral DevelopmentChapter 6 - Social, Emotional, and Moral Development  Chapter 7 - Peers and Social RelationsChapter 7 - Peers and Social Relations  Chapter 8 - Variations in LearningChapter 8 - Variations in Learning  Chapter 9 - Cultural and Ethnic IssuesChapter 9 - Cultural and Ethnic Issues  Chapter 10 - Behavioural Learning TheoriesChapter 10 - Behavioural Learning Theories  Chapter 11 - Cognitive Learning TheoriesChapter 11 - Cognitive Learning Theories  Chapter 12 - Mastery, Direct, and Constructivist ApproachesChapter 12 - Mastery, Direct, and Constructivist Approaches  Chapter 13 - Differentiated Instruction, Group/Cooperative Learning, BrainChapter 13 - Differentiated Instruction, Group/Cooperative Learning, Brain Based ApproachesBased Approaches  Chapter 14 - Emotions, stress, and MotivationChapter 14 - Emotions, stress, and Motivation  Chapter 15 - Learning Environments and Learned DifficultiesChapter 15 - Learning Environments and Learned Difficulties  Chapter 16 - Classroom ManagementChapter 16 - Classroom Management  Chapter 17 - Assessment and EvaluationChapter 17 - Assessment and Evaluation  Chapter 18 - ControversiesChapter 18 - Controversies  Chapter 19 - Alternative Schools and OrganizationsChapter 19 - Alternative Schools and Organizations  Chapter 20 - Distance and Digital EducationChapter 20 - Distance and Digital Education  Slide 3Slide 3  Slide 5Slide 5  Slide 7Slide 7  Slide 11Slide 11  Slide 17Slide 17  Slide 20Slide 20  Slide 24Slide 24  Slide 25Slide 25  Slide 28Slide 28  Slide 30Slide 30  Slide 34Slide 34  Slide 37Slide 37  Slide 38Slide 38  Slide 39Slide 39  Slide 42Slide 42  Slide 44Slide 44  Slide 46Slide 46  Slide 51Slide 51  Slide 52Slide 52  Slide 54Slide 54 ** Pages are hyperlinked for ease of navigation Glossary must be viewed as a slideshow for links to be effective
  • 3. Chapter One:Chapter One: Education and PsychologyEducation and Psychology  Education:Education: The process of obtaining knowledge, skill,The process of obtaining knowledge, skill, and competency in any given field and/or aand competency in any given field and/or a general term for the knowledge, skill, andgeneral term for the knowledge, skill, and competency one has gainedcompetency one has gained  Psychology:Psychology: The study of the psyche, mind or soulThe study of the psyche, mind or soul  Pragmatism:Pragmatism: A School of thought whichA School of thought which revolves around the notion that the worth ofrevolves around the notion that the worth of ideas lies in their observable consequencesideas lies in their observable consequences  Models:Models: Generalized mental conceptions ofGeneralized mental conceptions of broader more complex ideasbroader more complex ideas Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 4. ChapterChapter One:One: ContinuedContinued  Classical Teaching:Classical Teaching: An approach to education whichAn approach to education which emphasizes development inemphasizes development in academics, arts, leadership, andacademics, arts, leadership, and sporting activities with the intent ofsporting activities with the intent of creating wellcreating well rounded individuals.rounded individuals.  Curriculum-based teaching:Curriculum-based teaching: A more utilitarian approach toA more utilitarian approach to education which emphasizes a standardized curriculumeducation which emphasizes a standardized curriculum developed by a school district or higher government with thedeveloped by a school district or higher government with the goalgoal of ensuring that all students meet the minimumof ensuring that all students meet the minimum establishedestablished criteria (at least).criteria (at least).  Student Centered Teaching:Student Centered Teaching: Teaching approach which focusesTeaching approach which focuses on the needs and interests of the students allowing them toon the needs and interests of the students allowing them to determine their own curriculadetermine their own curricula Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 5. Chapter Two:Chapter Two: The Nature of EvidenceThe Nature of Evidence  Belief:Belief: A trust or confidence in, and acceptance of a theology orA trust or confidence in, and acceptance of a theology or understanding of the workings of reality. A world view.understanding of the workings of reality. A world view.  Opinion:Opinion: The summative view of a series of thoughts and feelingsThe summative view of a series of thoughts and feelings on a particular issue or question. Anyone can have anon a particular issue or question. Anyone can have an opinion, but Informed opinions are generally taken to beopinion, but Informed opinions are generally taken to be more credible.more credible.  Fact:Fact: Something that is known to be true or to have occurred;Something that is known to be true or to have occurred; generally something which has been proven numerousgenerally something which has been proven numerous times.times.  Correlation:Correlation: A measure of the relation between two or moreA measure of the relation between two or more elements. For example, there is a correlation between a dropelements. For example, there is a correlation between a drop inin temperature and the tendency to wear snowsuitstemperature and the tendency to wear snowsuits  Causation:Causation: The term for the process of something causingThe term for the process of something causing another. Cold temperatures cause us to wear snowsuits. Theanother. Cold temperatures cause us to wear snowsuits. The Chicken-Egg Paradox is a causality paradox.Chicken-Egg Paradox is a causality paradox. Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 6. Chapter 2Chapter 2 ContinuedContinued  True Experiment:True Experiment: An experimental form developed to helpAn experimental form developed to help determine causality relationships by looking at two or moredetermine causality relationships by looking at two or more different sets of characteristics/criteria in an unchangingdifferent sets of characteristics/criteria in an unchanging group and a group in which elements are alteredgroup and a group in which elements are altered  Control Group:Control Group: The experimental group which is left “as is” so asThe experimental group which is left “as is” so as to be able to measure changesto be able to measure changes  Experimental Group:Experimental Group: The group which undergoes treatment/ isThe group which undergoes treatment/ is experimented on.experimented on.  Double Blind Study:Double Blind Study: A study in which neither the experimenterA study in which neither the experimenter nor subjects are aware of who is a member of the controlnor subjects are aware of who is a member of the control group during the experiment.group during the experiment.  Placebo:Placebo: A mimic of the treatment which does not have anyA mimic of the treatment which does not have any physical effect so as to ensure that no one knows who’sphysical effect so as to ensure that no one knows who’s getting treatment and who isn’t.getting treatment and who isn’t.  Field Observation:Field Observation: A consistent, long term observation of aA consistent, long term observation of a groupgroup or phenomenon to learn its characteristicsor phenomenon to learn its characteristics Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 7.  Genetic Code:Genetic Code: The basic building blocks of any given organism,The basic building blocks of any given organism, different from one to the next, but passed down geneticallydifferent from one to the next, but passed down genetically from one generation to the next.from one generation to the next.  Chromosomes:Chromosomes: The component elements of genetic code which,The component elements of genetic code which, in certain combinations, determine elements andin certain combinations, determine elements and characteristics of the being in question. In most casescharacteristics of the being in question. In most cases humans have 46 arranged in 23 pairshumans have 46 arranged in 23 pairs  DNA:DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid, contained within each chromosomeDeoxyribonucleic Acid, contained within each chromosome which carries the important genetic informationwhich carries the important genetic information  Genetic DefectGenetic Defect:: Damage or change to one or moreDamage or change to one or more ChromosomalChromosomal sites, resulting in potential disabilitysites, resulting in potential disability  MutationMutation:: A more positive term for genetic defect, taken upA more positive term for genetic defect, taken up because sometimes “defects” can have beneficial diesbecause sometimes “defects” can have beneficial dies effectseffects Chapter Three:Chapter Three: Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology and theGenetics, Evolutionary Psychology and the EnvironmentEnvironment Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 8. Chapter 3Chapter 3 ContinuedContinued  Chromosomal Abnormalities:Chromosomal Abnormalities: A difference in theA difference in the number or shape of chromosomes resulting innumber or shape of chromosomes resulting in genetic differences.genetic differences.  Temperament:Temperament: A person’s characteristic way ofA person’s characteristic way of behavingbehaving  Introversion:Introversion: A more inwardly directed person,A more inwardly directed person, thoughtful and shythoughtful and shy  Extroversion:Extroversion: A more outwardly directed person,A more outwardly directed person, energetic and personableenergetic and personable  Evolutionary Psychology:Evolutionary Psychology: An attempt to explainAn attempt to explain human behaviour as a product of conscious orhuman behaviour as a product of conscious or unconscious drives to ensure the survival andunconscious drives to ensure the survival and proliferation of each person’s genetic material.proliferation of each person’s genetic material. Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 9. Chapter 3Chapter 3 ContinuedContinued  Goodness of fit:Goodness of fit: The level to which any given geneticThe level to which any given genetic mix is supported more by one environment thanmix is supported more by one environment than another (ie. How well it fits)another (ie. How well it fits)  Resiliency (Hardiness):Resiliency (Hardiness): The idea the struggle early inThe idea the struggle early in life “hardens” us for life later on, making us morelife “hardens” us for life later on, making us more successful adultssuccessful adults  Heritability:Heritability: The proportion of a particular biological orThe proportion of a particular biological or psychological characteristic that is inheritedpsychological characteristic that is inherited  Genotype:Genotype: A person’s genetic material or codeA person’s genetic material or code  Phenotype:Phenotype: A person’s observable characteristicsA person’s observable characteristics Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 10. Chapter 3Chapter 3 ContinuedContinued  Reaction Range:Reaction Range: The change in a person’sThe change in a person’s phenotype as determined by thephenotype as determined by the environmental conditions of any givenenvironmental conditions of any given genotypegenotype  Genetic Determinism:Genetic Determinism: The belief that geneticsThe belief that genetics decides all the major factors of a person’sdecides all the major factors of a person’s lifelife  Environmental Determinism:Environmental Determinism: The belief thatThe belief that factors in the environment decide all thefactors in the environment decide all the major factors of a person’s lifemajor factors of a person’s life Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 11. Chapter Four:Chapter Four: Brain and Biological DevelopmentBrain and Biological Development  Central Nervous System:Central Nervous System: The Brain, Spinal Cord andThe Brain, Spinal Cord and the cranial nervesthe cranial nerves  Peripheral Nervous System:Peripheral Nervous System: All nerves in other partsAll nerves in other parts ofof the bodythe body  Somatic Nervous System:Somatic Nervous System: A subdivision of theA subdivision of the Peripheral nervous system; carries information toPeripheral nervous system; carries information to andand from the sense organs and muscles.from the sense organs and muscles.  Autonomic Nervous System:Autonomic Nervous System: A subdivision of theA subdivision of the Peripheral nervous system; Carries information toPeripheral nervous system; Carries information to and from glands and internal organs.and from glands and internal organs.  Sympathetic Nervous System:Sympathetic Nervous System: A subdivision of theA subdivision of the Autonomic nervous system; adjusts bodyAutonomic nervous system; adjusts body temperature and heart rate. Also responsible fortemperature and heart rate. Also responsible for thethe “fight or flight” instinct.“fight or flight” instinct. Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 12. ChapterChapter Four:Four: ContinuedContinued  Parasympathetic Nervous System:Parasympathetic Nervous System: A subdivision ofA subdivision of the Peripheral nervous system. Responsible forthe Peripheral nervous system. Responsible for bodily maintenance (organs), counteracts thebodily maintenance (organs), counteracts the effects of the Sympathetic nervous system.effects of the Sympathetic nervous system.  Afferent Nerves:Afferent Nerves: Carry informationCarry information toto the nervousthe nervous systemssystems  Efferent Nerves:Efferent Nerves: Carry informationCarry information away fromaway from thethe nervous systemsnervous systems  Voluntary Nervous System:Voluntary Nervous System: The parts of the nervousThe parts of the nervous system which can be consciously controlledsystem which can be consciously controlled  Involuntary Nervous System:Involuntary Nervous System: The parts of theThe parts of the nervous system which cannot be consciouslynervous system which cannot be consciously controlledcontrolled Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 13. Chapter Four:Chapter Four: ContinuedContinued  Hindbrain:Hindbrain: Evolutionarily speaking, the oldest part ofEvolutionarily speaking, the oldest part of the brain,the brain, located in the lower rear of the cranial cavitylocated in the lower rear of the cranial cavity  Midbrain:Midbrain: The section between Forebrain and hindbrain,The section between Forebrain and hindbrain, predictably in the middle, relays communications from brainpredictably in the middle, relays communications from brain toto body.body.  Forebrain:Forebrain: Forming 80% of total brain volume, the brain sectionForming 80% of total brain volume, the brain section we depend on for all higher bodily and mental functions.we depend on for all higher bodily and mental functions.  Neuron:Neuron: An individual nerve cell. The average human has aboutAn individual nerve cell. The average human has about 100,000,000,000.100,000,000,000.  Synapse:Synapse: The space between one neuron and the next throughThe space between one neuron and the next through which neurotransmitters must pass to relay informationwhich neurotransmitters must pass to relay information Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 14. Chapter Four:Chapter Four: ContinuedContinued  Neurotransmitter:Neurotransmitter: Chemical molecules that cross the synapticChemical molecules that cross the synaptic gap and either excite or inhibit neural transmission,gap and either excite or inhibit neural transmission, depending on the circumstances.depending on the circumstances.  Proliferation:Proliferation: The first stage of Neural Development, thisThe first stage of Neural Development, this basically consists of many neurons being formed verybasically consists of many neurons being formed very quickly. This process has ended by birth.quickly. This process has ended by birth.  Migration:Migration: The second stage of Neural Development, brainThe second stage of Neural Development, brain neurons migrate to other parts of the body. This can occurneurons migrate to other parts of the body. This can occur laterlater in life.in life.  Cell Growth:Cell Growth: The third stage of Neural Development, as they areThe third stage of Neural Development, as they are used, cells grow and develop. The larger the cell the moreused, cells grow and develop. The larger the cell the more efficient, generally.efficient, generally.  Myelination:Myelination: The Fourth stage of Neural Development, in whichThe Fourth stage of Neural Development, in which cells are coated with a protective layer of fat which acts as ancells are coated with a protective layer of fat which acts as an electrical insulatorelectrical insulator Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 15. Chapter Four:Chapter Four: ContinuedContinued  Differentiation:Differentiation: The Fifth stage of NeuralThe Fifth stage of Neural Development, in which simple neurons developDevelopment, in which simple neurons develop more specific purposesmore specific purposes  Neural Plasticity:Neural Plasticity: Based on outside stimulation, theBased on outside stimulation, the brain forms its own unique pathways, meaning thatbrain forms its own unique pathways, meaning that people in different environments andpeople in different environments and circumstances literally think about things incircumstances literally think about things in differentdifferent ways.ways.  Bonding:Bonding: The psychological attachment of Parent toThe psychological attachment of Parent to childchild  Attachment:Attachment: The psychological attachment of child toThe psychological attachment of child to parentparent Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 16. Chapter Four:Chapter Four: ContinuedContinued  Rhythmic Motor Skills:Rhythmic Motor Skills: A person’s sense ofA person’s sense of basic rhythms in movement.basic rhythms in movement.  Gross Motor Skills:Gross Motor Skills: Broad movement andBroad movement and coordination skillscoordination skills  Fine Motor Skills:Fine Motor Skills: More refined, complexMore refined, complex movement and coordination abilitiesmovement and coordination abilities  GenderGender: Psychological characteristics which: Psychological characteristics which socially define the difference between malesocially define the difference between male and female personas. Not to be confusedand female personas. Not to be confused with “Sex” which defines the physicalwith “Sex” which defines the physical differences between male and female.differences between male and female. Table of ContentsTable of Contents
  • 17. Chapter Five:Chapter Five: Cognitive and Language DevelopmentCognitive and Language Development  Cognition:Cognition: Our Process of percieving ourselves in theOur Process of percieving ourselves in the worldworld  Schemata:Schemata: Frameworks developed in the mind toFrameworks developed in the mind to organize informationorganize information  Adaptation:Adaptation: Process by
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks