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Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Achyranthes ferruginea

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Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Achyranthes ferruginea
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  Short report  Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of   Achyranthes ferruginea M. Mukhlesur Rahman  a, ⁎ , A.H.M. Khurshid Alam  a  , Golam Sadik   a  , M. Robiul Islam  a  ,Proma Khondkar   a  , M. Aslam Hossain  a  , Mohammad A. Rashid  b a   Phytochemistry Research Laboratories, Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh  b  Phytochemistry Research Laboratories, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Received 22 July 2004; accepted 22 December 2006Available online 6 February 2007 Abstract Chloroform extract (CE) of   Achyranthes ferruginea  and  N  - trans -feruloyl-4-methyldopamine ( 1 ) showed remarkableantimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Both crude extract (CE) and compound  1  showed significant cytotoxicity of LC 50  at 16.21  μ g/ml and 11.70  μ g/ml, respectively.© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  Keywords: Achyranthes ferruginea ; Antimicrobial activity; Cytotoxicity 1. Plant  Achyranthes ferruginea  Roxb. (Amaranthaceae) [1,2], locally known as Raktoshirinchi, was collected from thevillage Maherchandia of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh in April 2000 and identified by the Bangladesh NationalHerbarium, Dhaka, Bangladesh where a voucher specimen (Accession number DACB 29533) was deposited. 2. Uses in traditional medicines Aerial parts against piles, boils, shigellosis and erosion of skin [2]. 3. Previous isolated class of constituents  None from this plant. Steroids [3], glycosides [4], and hydrocarbons [5] are reported from  Achyranthes  spp. 4. Tested materials Chloroform extract (CE) and  N  - trans -feruloyl-4-methyldopamine  1  [6]. Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 260 – 262www.elsevier.com/locate/fitote ⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +880 721 750041/4110; fax: +880 721 750064.  E-mail address:  mukhlesurrah@yahoo.co.uk  (M.M. Rahman).0367-326X/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.12.003  5. Studied activity Antibacterial and antifungal activities by disc diffusion method [7 – 9] and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp bioassay [10,11]. 6. Used microorganisms Listed in Tables 1 and 2. 7. Results Chloroform extract (CE) and compound  1  showed remarkable activities against all test bacteria and fungi except  Candida  spp. Among the bacteria, the chloroform extract (CE) and compound  1  were found to be more effectiveagainst   Shigella  spp. thus the folkloric use of this plant against shigellosis is reasonably justified. The minimuminhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound  1  was found to be 64  μ g/ml against   Bacillus subtilis  and  Shigella sonnei while MIC of kanamycin was 8  μ g/ml against   B. subtilis  and 16  μ g/ml against   S. sonnei . The LC 50  values of chloroform extract (CE) and compound  1  in brine shrimp bioassay were found to be 16.21  μ g/ml and 11.70  μ g/ml,respectively. Table 1Antibacterial activity of the  A. ferruginea  chloroform extract and of compound  1 Bacteria Diameter of the zone of inhibition (mm) a  Chloroform extract Compound  1  Kanamycin200 400 200 400 30Gram (+)  Bacillus subtilis  11 15 10 15 30 Sarcina lutea  13 17 9 12 26 Staphylococcus aureus  12 16 11 17 30  Bacillus megaterium  12 18 6 10 25 Streptococcus  β  -haemolyticus  12 18 10 12 23Gram ( − ) Shiga dysenteriae  15 19 14 18 26 Shigella shiga  17 23 16 23 26 Shigella boydii  15 20 14 19 27 Shigella sonnei  14 19 14 20 27 Shigella flexneriae  15 19 14 19 28  Escherichia coli  12 17 12 17 25 Salmonella typhi  11 17 7 10 29  Klebsiella  species 13 18 10 12 24  Pseudomonas aeruginosa  12 18 6 9 25 a  μ g/disc.Table 2Antifungal activity of the  A. ferruginea  chloroform extract and of compound  1 Fungi Diameter of the zone of inhibition (mm) a  Chloroform extract Compound  1  Aspergillus flavus  12 9 Candida  spp.  – –  Rhizopus aurizae  14 14( – ) no sensitivity. a  μ g/disc.261  M.M. Rahman et al. / Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 260  –  262  Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Natural Products Chemistry Section of the Molecular Targets Drug DiscoveryProgram, National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Frederic, MD 21702, USA for NMR studies and Dr. L.K. Pannel, National Institute of Diabetic Disorder and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), Bethesda, MD, USA for mass spectrameasurements. References [1] Hooker JD. The flora of British India. London: L. Reeve & Co; 1879.[2] Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants, vol. III. India: Latit Mohan Basu; 1994.[3] Kuret O, Hastingen E, Schmid MG, Reiner J, Bucar F, Mulatu E. Monatsh Chem 2000;3:195.[4] Chao Z, Zhang E, Zhao HB. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi 1999;34:587.[5] Ali M. Orient J Chem 1993;9:84.[6] Tanaka H, Nakamura T, Ichino K, Ito K. Phytochemistry 1989;28:2516.[7] Bauer AW, Kibry WMM, Sheries JC, Truek M. Am J Sci 1951;1:103.[8] Reiner R. Antibiotics — an introduction. Basle: F. Hoffman La Roche et Co; 1982.[9] Barry AL. Principle and practice of microbiology. Philadelphia: Lea and Fabager; 1976.[10] Mclaughlin JL. Bioassays for discovery of antitumor and antiviral agent from natural sources. Proceedings of NIH workshop, vol. 18. Bethesda;1988. p. 220.[11] Meyer BN, Ferringni NR, Puam JE, Laeob Sen LB, Nichois DE, Mclaughlin JL. Planta Med 1982;45:31.262  M.M. Rahman et al. / Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 260  –  262
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