Anto &syno

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  Project Gutenberg's English Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin FernaldThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: English Synonyms and Antonyms With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions Author: James Champlin FernaldRelease Date: May 21, 2009 [EBook #28900]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ASCII*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENGLISH SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS ***Produced by Jan-Fabian Humann, Stephen Blundell and theOnline Distributed Proofreading Team at English Synonyms and Antonyms _A Practical and Invaluable Guide to Clear and Precise Diction for Writers, Speakers, Students, Business and Professional Men_  Connectives of  English Speech The work is likely to prove of great value to all writers. --_WashingtonEvening Star._  The book will receive high appreciation from thoughtful students whoseek the most practical help. --_Grand Rapids Herald._   It is written in a clear and pleasing style and so arranged that but amoment's time is needed to find any line of the hundreds of importantthough small words which this book discusses. --_Chattanooga Times._  Its practical reference value is great, and it is a great satisfactionto note the care and attention to detail and fine shades of meaning theauthor has bestowed upon the words he discusses. --_Church Review_,Hartford. A work of great practical helpfulness to a large class of people. --_Louisville Courier-Journal._  This is one of the most useful books for writers, speakers, and all whocare for the use of language, which has appeared in a longtime. --_Cumberland Presbyterian_, Nashville. It is a book of great value to all who take any interest in correct andelegant language. --_Methodist_, Baltimore. This work is a welcome aid to good writing and good speech. It isworthy the close study of all who would cultivate finished style. Itsadmirable arrangement and a good index make it easy for reference. --_Christian Observer._  His book has some excellent qualities. In the first place, it isabsolutely free from dogmatic assertion; in the second place, itcontains copious examples from good authors, which should guide arightthe person investigating any word, if he is thoroughly conversant withEnglish. --_The Sun_, New York. _STANDARD EDUCATIONAL SERIES_  ENGLISH SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS WITH NOTES ON THE CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS DESIGNED AS A COMPANION FOR THE STUDY AND AS A TEXT-BOOK FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS BY JAMES C. FERNALD, L.H.D. _Editor of Synonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions in the Standard Dictionary_  _NINETEENTH EDITION_    FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY NEW YORK AND LONDON _Copyright, 1896, by FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY._  _Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, Eng._  PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATESTranscriber's Note: Minor typographical errors have been corrected without note, whilst a list of significant amendments can be found at the end of the text. Inconsistent hyphenation and conflicting variant spellings have been standardised, except where used for emphasis. Non-standard characters have been represented as follows: [=a] _a_ with upper macron; [=o] _o_ with upper macron.CONTENTS. PAGE. PREFACE vii PART I. SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS AND PREPOSITIONS 1 PART II. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 377 INDEX 509PREFACE.The English language is peculiarly rich in synonyms, as, with such a  history, it could not fail to be. From the time of Julius Caesar,Britons, Romans, Northmen, Saxons, Danes, and Normans fighting,fortifying, and settling upon the soil of England, with Scotch and Irishcontending for mastery or existence across the mountain border and theChannel, and all fenced in together by the sea, could not but influenceeach other's speech. English merchants, sailors, soldiers, andtravelers, trading, warring, and exploring in every clime, of necessitybrought back new terms of sea and shore, of shop and camp andbattlefield. English scholars have studied Greek and Latin for athousand years, and the languages of the Continent and of the Orient inmore recent times. English churchmen have introduced words from Hebrew,Greek, and Latin, through Bible and prayer-book, sermon and tract. Fromall this it results that there is scarcely a language ever spoken amongmen that has not some representative in English speech. The spirit of the Anglo-Saxon race, masterful in language as in war and commerce, hassubjugated all these various elements to one idiom, making not apatchwork, but a composite language. Anglo-Saxon thrift, finding oftenseveral words that srcinally expressed the same idea, has detailed themto different parts of the common territory or to different service, sothat we have an almost unexampled variety of words, kindred in meaningbut distinct in usage, for expressing almost every shade of humanthought.Scarcely any two of such words, commonly known as synonyms, areidentical at once in signification and in use. They have certain commonground within which they are interchangeable; but outside of that eachhas its own special province, within which any other word comes as anintruder. From these two qualities arises the great value of synonyms ascontributing to beauty and effectiveness of expression. Asinterchangeable, they make possible that freedom and variety by whichthe diction of an accomplished writer or speaker differs from the woodenuniformity of a legal document. As distinct and specific, they enable amaster of style to choose in every instance the one term that is themost perfect mirror of his thought. To write or speak to the bestpurpose, one should know in the first place all the words from which hemay choose, and then the exact reason why in any case any particular word should be chosen. To give such knowledge in these two directions isthe office of a book of synonyms.Of Milton's diction Macaulay writes:  His poetry acts like an incantation. Its merit lies less in its obvious meaning than in its occult power. There would seem, at first sight, to be no more in his words than in other words. But they are words of enchantment. No sooner are they pronounced, than the past is present and the distant near. New forms of beauty start at once into existence, and all the burial places of the memory give up their dead. Change the structure of the sentence; _substitute one synonym for another_, and the whole effect is destroyed. The spell loses its power; and he who should then hope to conjure with it would find himself as much mistaken as Cassim in the Arabian tale, when he stood crying, 'Open Wheat,' 'Open Barley,' to the door which obeyed no sound but 'Open Sesame.' The miserable failure of Dryden in his attempt to translate into his own diction some parts of the
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