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AP Euro Chapter 13 Terms

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AP Euro Key Terms and People Chapter 13
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   AP Euro Midterm Terms Chapter 13 Renaissance : 1350-1550, A French word meaning “rebirth”, first used by art historian and critic Giorgio Vasari to refer to the rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity Patronage : Money gained from the economic growth as a result of the revolution was used to hire talent in a system of Patronage, through which cities, groups, and individuals commissioned writers and artist to produce specific works. Communes : Northern Italian cities, sworn associations of free men who, like other town residents, began in the 12th century to seek political and economic independence from local nobles. The merchant guilds that formed the communes built and maintained the city walls, regulated trade, collected taxes, and kept civil orders. Popolo: The common people of Italian cities who were disenfranchised and heavily taxed, they bitterly resented their exclusion from power. They used armed force and violence in city after city to take over the city governments, establishing Republican Governments- in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by their chosen representatives Condottieri: Military leaders brought in by merchant oligarchies to establish order, they had their own mercenary armies, and in many cities they took over political power as well. Signori: Many cities in Italy became these, in which one man ruled and handed down the right to rule to his son. Some kept the institutions of communal government in place, but these had no actual power. Courts: in the 15th and 16th centuries the signori in many cities and the most powerful merchant oligarchs in others transformed their households into these. Signori and other rulers lived, conducted business, and supported the arts here. Sforza Family: Condottieri turned-signori, the Sforza ruled the said to be republic Milan harshly and dominated Milan, along with several other smaller in the north from 1447 to 1535. Medici Family: Great Banking family that, in reality, starting in 1434 held power almost continually for centuries. Their ruled produced three popes, who were selected for their political skills not their piety. Pope Alexander VI: the most ruthless pope of the Medici Family rule, he was aided militarily and politically by his illegitimate son Cesare Borgia. King Charles VIII: (French) called on by Milan when Florence and Naples decided to take  Milan territories, invaded Italy in 1494 Girolamo Savonarola: Dominican friar. Predicted that God would punish Italy for its moral vice and corrupt leadership. the French invasion was interrupted as a fulfillment to this prophecy. When the Medici dynasty that ruled Florence fell, he became the political and religious leader of the city. Reorganized the city and told the people to destroy anything that might lead them to sin, known as the bonfires off he vanities Habsburg-Valois Wars : the name given to the conflicts between France and the Holy Roman Empire, fought on Italian soil. Renaissance : a term first used in print by Giorgio Vasari. The time of Renaissance in Italy was a rebirth of culture that focused on using ancient Roman and Greek works as models. Francesco Petrarch felt a renaissance was needed to get out of the dark ages that had come between the times of Rome and the peak of the arts and culture, and again try to reach that level of perfection. Humanism : the study of Latin classics in a program designed by the Italians with the goal of understanding human nature. Cicero : Roman author and statesman who, in the opinion of the humanists, in his works the glory of Rome had been brightest. Leonardo Bruni : Humanist historian and Florentine city official, closely linked the decline of the Latin language after the death of Cicero and the decline of the Roman republic. Made it clear in his writings that by the period of his writings the period of decay had ended and a new era had begun Marsilio Ficino : Under the patronage of Cosimo de’ Medici, the most powerful man in Florence, this scholar began to lecture to an informal group of Florence’s cultural elite; his lectures became known as the Platonic Academy. Held Plato in high regard, translating his works into Latin in an attempt to synthesize Christian and Platonic teachings. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola : Ficino’s most brilliant student, thought that both Christian and classic texts taught that the universe was a hierarchy of beings from God down through spiritual beings to material beings, with humanity the crucial link right in the middle, both material and spiritual. Wrote On the Dignity of Man , stressing that man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. According to Pico, man is the one part of the created world that has no fixed place, but can freely choose whether to rise to the realm of the angels or descend to the realm of the animals, because of the divine image planted in him, he is truly a “miraculous creature”.  Virtu: The quality of being able to shape the world according to one’s own will. Possessed by individuals who had risen above their background to become brilliant, powerful, or unique. Leon Battista Alberti: proud renaissance man who took pride in his achievements, he wrote literature and the first scientific analysis of perspective. He wrote an autobiography referring to himself as “he” instead of “I” The Courtier  : Book by Baldassare Castiglione, sought to train discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentlemen. Believed an educated man should have a broad background in many subjects , and his spiritual and physical as well as intellectual capabilities should be trained. How to book on becoming a “Renaissance man” Niccolo Machiavelli: Best-known political theorist of this era, secretary to one of the government bodies in the city of Florence after the Medici family had fallen from power due to the French invasion. Wrote The Prince , which uses the examples of classical and contemporary rulers to argue that the function of a ruler, or any governing body, is to preserve order and security, he must do whatever he can to preserve these things, but he must not do anything to make the people turn against him. Christian Humanists : Northern humanists who shared the ideas of Ficino and Pico about the wisdom of ancient texts, but they went beyond Italian efforts to synthesize the Christian and classical traditions to see humanist learning as a way to bring about reform of the church and deepen people’s spiritual lives. Utopia : Written by Thomas Monroe, a controversial dialogue titled with a word he invented form the Greek word “nowhere”. It describes a community on an island somewhere beyond Europe where all children receive a good education, primarily in the Greco-Roman classics, and adults divide their days between manual labor or business pursuits. It expressed the idea of having the government solve the citizens problems of hunger and poverty. Themes of religious toleration and order and reason prevail. Desiderius Erasmus : Dutch humanist, fame rested largely on his exceptional knowledge of Greek and the Bible. Some of his writings include- The Education of a Christian Prince, book combining idealistic and practical suggestions for the formation of a ruler’s character through the careful study of Plutarch, Aristotle, Cicero, and Plato; The Praise of Folly  , a satire of worldly wisdom and a plea for the simple and spontaneous Christian faith of children; and most importantly a critical edition of the Greek New Testament. Johann Gutenberg: Used metal stamps, that were srcinally used to mark symbols on jewelry, dipped in ink and used to mark symbols onto a surface, paper. It could be used over and over again and could be used to print different text by changing the stamps. (Created Printing Press)  Printing Revolution: Enabled by the surplus of paper, which was also made using techniques that had srcinated in China and were brought into Europe through Muslim Spain, the creation of moveable metal type, printing press created by Johann Gutenberg, and increased literacy promoted the sale of books. Filippo Brunelleschi: Delegated by the cloth merchants to build the dome on the cathedral of Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti: Delegated by the cloth merchants to design the bronze doors of the adjacent Baptistery, a separate building in which baptisms were performed. Michelangelo: Commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Vatican’s Sistine Chapel in Rome, it was demanded he work fast and the Pope frequently visited the artist as he worked with suggestions and criticisms. Michelangelo was irritated by this and complained to the pope, yet finished his work. Realism : A new style of art in the Renaissance created by Giotto. His treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized representation of the human body. Perspective Painting : Pioneered by Andrea Mantegna and Piero della Francesca, it is the linear representation of distance and space on a flat surface. Mannerism : Developed by Titan and other 16th century painters. In this style artists sometimes distorted figures, exaggerated musculature, and heightened color to express emotion and drama more intently. (The Last Judgement by Michelangelo) Debate about Women : Began in the end of the 14th century, it was a debate about women’s character and nature that would last for centuries. Females were denounced as domineering, demanding, and devious. In answer to this several authors created a list of women who did great works and deserved praise and expressed bravery, loyalty, and morality. It discussed women’s qualities and role in society. Charles VII (French) : Crowned by Joan of Arc at Reims, revived the monarchy and France. He was frail and indecisive and come from a troubled family. He expelled the English from French land by 1453, reorganized the royal council, giving increased influence to lawyers and bankers and strengthened royal finances through such taxes like the Gabelle on salt and the Taille, a land tax. Louis XI : The “spider king”, son of Charles VII. Improved his father’s army, and used it to control the nobel’s separate militias and to curb urban independence. Henry IV : English leader, dominated the aristocracy and indulged in disruptive violence at the
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