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Application of Nanotechnology in Millitary and Defence

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Application of Nanotechnology
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   Smart Shirt  Smart shirts , or clothing made from smart fabric, have been made by severalcompanies, including, Numetrex, Adidas, Sensatex, SmartLife and Zephyr Technology. The Numetrex uses Zephyr electronic modules and silver coated electrodes to pick up a personsheart rate and transmit the data to a !atch !orn on the !rist. The Zephyr io#arnessmeasures heart rate, respiration rate, temperature, activity, and posture. $ata is transmittedvia luetooth to a radio, %$A or mobile phone and hence the internet. There also exists the#&' !hich measures #eart rate, speed and distance to a mobile phone for training purposes.The SmartLife #ealth(est uses technology originating from the )niversity of 'anchester is based on knitted sensor structures !hich are multi *functional and integral tothe garments manufacture. These softsensors contain discreet electric and electroniccomponents for monitoring physiological signs.The LifeShirt by (ivo'etrics !as the first commercially available smartshirt andrecorded +-, respiration using inductance plethysmography, accelerometry, !ith optional plugin pulse oximetry, -S, blood pressure, microphone and electronic diary capture.The Sensatex Smart Shirt  is manufactured by Sensatex, but !as developed by the-eorgia /nstitute of Technology and srcinally funded by the )S militarys 01st entury Land2arrior %rogram and the $efense Advance esearch %ro3ects Agency 4 o!ie 05556. Theshirt contains sensors that can be used to monitor vital signs such as heart rate, +7-,respiration, and blood pressure 4Tollen 05516. To date this 8Smart shirt8 has not entered production. According to a recent 15*k by company +&'9(++, Sensatex has transferredthe license to +xmovere #oldings./n mass production in 055: is the Zephyr io#arness !hich has been shipped to NASA, Stanford )niversity and )S Special 9ps for live soldier monitoring over their (#;radios.  How it works The Sensatex Smart Shirt uses !hatthe company calls interconnectiontechnology  that involves net!orking sensing,monitoring, and information processingdevices 4Sensatex 055<6.The SmartLife #ealth(est uses bothintegrated and integral knitted softsensors!hich contain discreet electric and electroniccomponents for monitoring physiologicalsigns.The io#arness splits the shirt in t!o= one is the harness or shirt that uses off theshelf fabrics and conductive lycra as the electrodes. The second piece is s small electronic8puck8 that attaches to the shirt and converts the electrodes signals to vital signs. Nanoscience and Technology ‘11  This information from the shirt is sent toyour doctor, coach, or personal server via a!ireless net!ork like luetooth, ;, 2LAN, or cellular net!ork.  Applications Health monitoring  The Smart Shirt system designed for health monitoring can be adapted to various healthrelated applications to meet the needs of the patient 4Sensatex 055<6. /nitial System consist of t!o or three lead +7-, heart rate monitor, and respiration monitor, temperature, activity and posture. These parameters can be used to monitor people after surgery, at risk of falling or those !ith chronic illness that do not re>uire hospitali?ation. First responders emote sensing using a smart shirt designed for ;irst esponders has one goal !hich is to@significantly minimi?e casualties for first responders by providing kno!ledge of their healthstatus to on*scene commanders in a number of emergency situations 4Sensatex 055<6 hasdeveloped a ;irst esponder Smart Shirt incorporatingB sensors for continuous biometricmonitoring, an electronic controller and optional bi*directional !ireless telemetry system toensure their safety, and an electronic controller and optional bi*directional !ireless telemetrysystem to communicate all ;irst esponder team information including biometric data to off*site personnel for a better coordination of the rescue operation 4Sensatex 055<6. Zephyr technology has shipped their ;S1555 system that uses a smart shirt or io#arness totransmit vital signs over the fire fighters (#; radio to the on scene commander.  Athletes The Smart Shirt System designed for athletes can be used to maximi?e training and performance. The Athletic Smart Shirt System allo!s the athlete to track and monitor @biometric data, such as heart rate, respiration rate, body temperature, caloric burn, and provides readouts via a !rist!atch, %$ACsmart phone, or voice 4Sensatex 055<6. Theinformation can also be stored and accessed using the internet in order for the athlete to track his or her progress over time. The Team system from Zephyr Technology can monitor up toDE players any!here in a stadium and use the vital signs and accelerometty to detectanaerobic threshold, heart rate recovery and other parameters important to measure a personfitness and fatigue. Other applications Some other possible applications for Smart Shirts include monitoring #a?ardous*'aterials personnel, soldiers on the battlefield, and truck driver fatigue. Smart Shirts !ill likely make Nanoscience and Technology ‘11  their !ay to the battlefield in the future. The shirt !ill not only allo! soldiers vital signs to bemonitored from any!here, but their exact position !ill also be monitored. This !ill not only provide a strategical advantage to our soldiers but also improve the response time of medical personnel.  Benefits The design of the /nterconnection Technology allo!s for a fully fashioned garment to be produced from t!o*dimensional fabric !ithout the need to cut and se! the garment !hichallo!s for it to @be incorporated into any fabric 4cotton, lycra, !ool, silk, etc.6 or blend of fabrics !ithout effecting the look, feel or integrity of the fabric that it is replacing4Sensatex055<6. The information collected by the shirt can be accessed from a remote locationtherefore improving diagnosis time and also providing a sense of security for the user. Visor (Chromogenics) ;lexible and light*!eight electrochromic foil capable of changing its degree of darkness !hen an electrical voltage of a fe! volts is applied.   hromo-enics has an internationally leading position for electrochromic materials,and many years of research at the FngstrGm Laboratory has led to a uni>ue technology and patent portfolio. y using a multilayer*structure comprising several different materials bet!een t!o plastic films, one creates a flexible and light*!eight electrochromic foil capable of changingits degree of darkness !hen anelectrical voltage of a fe! volts isapplied. The voltage drives ions from alayer of nickel oxide, via a polymer electrolyte, into a layer of tungstenoxide. oth of the oxide layers then become darker. eversing the polaritymakes the ions move in the oppositedirection, and the t!o layers brighten.An electronic control unit makesit possible to regulate the degree of darkness of the electrochromic foil. Theregulation can be manual or automatic=for example, through connection to asensor net!ork. 2hen the desired degree of darkness has been achieved, the optical properties arekept until the next change is effected 4in about the same !ay as an electric battery maintainsits charge over a long time6. So the foil does not use electricity except !hen its degree of darkness is being altered. This makes the foil very energy efficient in comparison !ith other technologies for regulating transparency. Nanoscience and Technology ‘11   Night Vision Goggles Tiny pyramids of molecules commonly used in communications chips could potentially reduce the cost and increase the performance of night vision goggles, according toresearch results from the )niversity of Southern alifornia and the )niversity of Texas. The t!o universities announced thatresearchers have developed sensors !ith>uantum dots that can detect infraredradiation at the same levels as sensors in thenight vision goggles currently used by themilitary. The >uantum dots consist of different materials and rely on different physical properties for detecting infraredthan existing sensors. +ach dot has a core of indium arsenide surrounded by galliumarsenide and an indium*gallium arsenidealloy. A single dot is about 05 nanometers in base si?e and about E nanometers in height. onceivably, >uantum dot sensors could cost about one*third as much and outperformexisting models.  NanoArmor ! rotecting the Soldiers of #omorrow A year ago /sraast reported on the development of the first commercial nano*based lubricant !hich !as developed by the /sraeli company ApNano materials. A year later !efind ApNano !orking also on a !holly different application of their technology * shieldingand protection. /n recent research lead by %rof. Han Iiu Zhu of the School of 'echanical,'aterials and 'anufacturing +ngineering at the )niversity of Nottingham, +ngland, asample of the ApNano material !as sub3ected to severe shocks generated by a steel pro3ectiletraveling at velocities of up to 1.< kmCsecond. The material !ithstood the shock pressuresgenerated by the impacts of up to 0<5 tons per s>uare centimeter. This is approximately e>uivalentto dropping four diesel locomotives onto an areathe si?e of oneJs fingernail. $uring the test thematerial proved to be so strong that after the impactthe samples remained essentially identicalcompared to the srcinal material. Additionally, arecent study by %rof. K. '. 'artin from +cole entral de Lyon in ;rance tested the ne!material under isostatic pressure and found it to be stable up to at least <5 tonsCcm 0 . Nanoscience and Technology ‘11
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