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Argumentative Essays Essentials2

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  Argumentative/Discursive Essays An argumentative/discursive essay is a piece of formal writing which discusses a particular issue, situation or problem.There are three main types of discursive essays. i. For and against essays  present both sides of an issue, discussing points in favour of a particular topic as well as those against, or the advantages and disadvantages of a particular question. Each point should be supported by justifications, examples, and/or reasons. The writers own opinion should be presented only in the final paragraph. ii. Opinion essays  present the writers personal opinion concerning the topic, clearlystated and supported by reasons and/or examples. The opposing viewpoint and reasonshould be included in a separate paragraph before the closing one, together with anargument that shows it is an unconvincing viewpoint. The writers opinion should beincluded in the introduction, and summarised/restated in the conclusion. iii. Essays suggesting solutions to problems , in which the problem!s associated with a particular issue or situation are analysed and possible solutions are put forward,together with any expected results/consequences. The writers opinion may bementioned, directly or indirectly, in the introduction and/or conclusion.A good discursive essay should consist of# a an introductory paragraph  in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed$  b a main body , in which points are clearly stated in separate paragraphs and exemplifiedor justified$ and c a closing paragraph  summarising the main points of the essay, in which youstate/restate your opinion, and/or give a balanced consideration of the topic. Points to consider ã %resent each point in a separate paragraph. A well developed paragraph contains a clear topic sentence , which summarisesthe contents of the paragraph, as well as a clear  justification ,explanation or example in support of the point presented. ã &ell'(nown quotations ! e.g.  As writer Somerset Maughamonce said, “It is bad enough to know the past; it would beintolerable to know the future.”  ) rhetorical questions ! e.g.  If  people today are not concerned enough about tomorrow, will the future still be there for man or though'provo(ingstatements ! e.g. !he fact is that one s future is what one makes it. !here is no suchthing as chance. are useful devices to ma(e your composition more interesting. ã !efore  you begin writing, you should always ma(e a list of the points you will present. ã )o not use informal style ! e.g. contacted forms, collo#uial language, etc or verystrong language ! e.g.  I know, I am sure ã *se appropriate lin(ing words/phrases to show the lin(s between paragraphs, as well asto lin( sentences within paragraphs. + topic sentence any people, however, prefer living in flats because they feelsafer.  justification &ith increasing crime rates, people are afraid to live in ahouse, as they feel morevulnerable to burglars and other criminals. Therefore, they prefer the feeling of security that the proximity of neighbouring flatsoffers them.  P#A$%&$E' (oo at the essay plans belo* for the three types of discursive essaysthen say *hat features the plans have in common and ho* each plan differs from theothers.For and againstOpinion+olutions to Problems&ntroductionParagraph , -tate topic !withoutstating your opinion &ntroductionParagraph , -tate the topic and your opinion &ntroductionParagraph , -tate the problem and itscause!s /effect!s -ain bodyParagraphs   0 Arguments for   justifications, examples or reasons Paragraphs 1  2 Arguments against   justifications, examples or reasons -ain bodyParagraphs  1 iewpoints  reasons/examples Paragraph 2 0pposing viewpoint and reason/example -ain bodyParagraphs   2 -uggestions  results $onclusionFinal paragraph 1alanced consideration or opinion $onclusionFinal Paragraph -ummarise/restate your opinion $onclusionFinal paragraph -ummarise your opinion Formal style' 3seful %ips for Discussing Essays4hen *riting a discursive essay youshould use'5ou should not  '  formal, impersonal style !see  Formal Style , p. 2 e.g.  It is argued that $; It is a common belief that $  formal lin(ing words/phrases ! e.g.  furthermore, howe%er, nonetheless  complex sentences with a variety of   use short forms etc ! e.g.  I m, It s except when these are part of aquotation  colloquial expressions, phrasal verbs,idioms   ! e.g. lots of, pup up with, be o%er the 3  lin(s, dependent clauses, etc! e.g.  Although it is widely accepted that compulsory military ser%ice, which pro%ides an army with abundant manpower, is beneficial to a country sability to defend itself, closer analysisof military efficiency suggests that it isad%anced weaponry which plays acrucial role in$  topic sentences to introduce the subjectof each paragraph  write well'developed paragraphs,giving reasons/examples  use cautious generalisations ! e.g.  Inmost de%eloped countries    ,education$  use sequencing ! e.g. &irst'ly, Second'ly,etc and lin(ing words/phrases ! e.g. howe%er, although, etc  ma(e references to other sources ! e.g.  ()perts ha%e pro%ed that$  use quotations, either word'for'word or in paraphrase, being careful to identifythe source ! e.g.  As *inston +hurchill said,”$ moon about   simplistic vocabulary ! e.g.  ()pertssay they think this is bad     , $  a series of short sentences ! e.g.  Many people think so. !hey arewrong.  simple lin(ing words ! e.g. and, but,so except for variety  use very emotional language ! e.g.  I absolutely detest people who$  express personal opinions too strongly! e.g.  I know$ $ instead, use milder expressions ! e.g.  All politicians are$  refer blindly to statistics withoutaccurate reference to their source ! e.g.6  A recent study showed$”  whichstudy  use clich4s ! e.g.  -ome was not built ina day.  use personal examples ! e.g.  In myschool$ %he Discussion $loc  ã &hen considering a topic you mayrefer to the discussion cloc(, whichwill help you thin( of ideas when planning your essay. ã 5eferring to the discussion cloc( is auseful 6brainstorming7 technique, as ithelps you examine a topic fromvarious viewpoints and decide onideas/points to include in your essay. ã 8eep in mind that a topic may notrelate to all the aspects presented inthe discussion cloc(. ã 5emember that for each viewpointyou have thought of, there is usuallyan opposing argument. Thin( of theopposing arguments when planning 2%sychological5eligious-   cientificArtisticEconomicEducational-ocial%oliticaloral9istorical9ealth%ersonal  you essay. P#A$%&$E' -atch each of the follo*ing vie*points *ith the corresponding opposing arguments. iewpoints +.:rom a political point of view, spaceexploration enables superpowers todemonstrate their level of technicaladvancement.3.:rom a scientific standpoint, spaceexploration has been responsible for rapid developments in materials and processes which have also been of  benefit to people on earth.2.:rom an economic standpoint, theinvestment of time and money in spaceexploration could, in future, repayhumanity many times over. Thediscovery of resources in outer spacescould be of great benefit to our planet.;.5egarding the social implications of space exploration, there are those whoargue that the potential that other planetshold for colonisation could prove to bethe salvation of the human race. /pposing Arguments a 9owever, it can be argued that themoney would be better spent onalleviating the problems of developingcountries. b <evertheless, many sociologists arguethat colonies in space would create moresocial problems than they could solve.c 0n the other hand, some politicalanalysts claim that the -pace race hasled to unnecessary competition betweennations and a consequent failure tocooperate and collaborate oninternational issues.d 0pponents argue that the spacetechnology is of limited use to societyand that the research could be used more profitably to try to solve some of themore pressing problems which we face. 3seful e7pressions and lining *ords/phrases ;
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