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Arrive Alive Summary Notes - Year 10

Summary notes of the subject 'Arrive Alive' - Year 10 Curriculum
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  Arrive Alive Summary Notes Terminology:  Abstinence  –    the fact or practice of restraining oneself from indulging in something, typically alcohol  Addiction, addictive behaviour  –    the person has a strong desire or compulsion to use the drug. The  person is uncomfortable or distressed if the drug taking is prevented or stops.  Binge drinking  –    the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time. There are two forms of binge drinking: -   The consumption of five or more drinks in one drinking session -   Heavy and continuous drinking over a number of days or weeks  Detoxification  –    the process by which an individual is withdrawn from the effects of a psychoactive substance. Typically, the individual is clinically intoxicated or already in withdrawal at the outset of detoxification.  Drug misuse  –    the harmful or inappropriate use of drugs  Drug dependence  –    Occurs when a drug becomes central to a person‟s thoughts, emotions  and activities. Using the drug takes on a higher priority than many other things in life and the person may neglect other responsibilities.  Experimental use  –    When a person tries a drug to see what it‟s like.  Harm minimisation  –    Acknowledges that some people in societies will use alcohol and other drugs and therefore incorporates policies which aim to prevent or reduce drug related harms. Harm reduction is a central pillar of the harm minimisation approach. Tolerance  –    If a person repeatedly takes a dru g, the person‟s body becomes used to working with a certain level of the drug in the bloodstream. Seatbelt Laws -   Each year on average there are more than 50 people killed who were not wearing a seatbelt, and almost 300 people injured -   In a crash, a person who is not restrained by a seatbelt will continue to travel forward at the speed the vehicle was travelling prior to the crash, until something stops them. -   In cases where back passengers aren‟t wearing seatbelts, they are stopped by the front seats, causing serious damage to passengers in the front of the car -   Penalties o   Fines and demerit points for a driver who is not wearing a seatbelt or who fails to ensure their passengers are wearing seatbelts o   Passengers aged 16 years and older who do not use an available seatbelt will be fined o   Double demerit points apply for non-use of seatbelts during all holiday periods -   It is illegal for you to overload a car, or to have passengers travelling in the boot of a car  Functions of a seatbelt -   Cause the occupant to decelerate at the same time the vehicle is crushing  -   Spread theh force of the impact over the stronger parts of the occupant‟s body (pelvis and chest)   -   Prevent the occupant colliding with the interior parts of the vehicle   -   Prevent ejection from the vehicle P-plates  –   vehicle and passenger conditions for P1 and P2 licence holders Prohibited vehicles: -   Eight of more cylinders (except diesel) -   A turbocharged engine (except diesel) -   A supercharged engine (except diesel) -   Engine performance modifications that requi re an engineers‟ certificate  -   Certain high performance six cylinder vehicles or other vehicles as described in the publication  Novice Drivers  –   High Performance Vehicle Restrictions Passenger conditions -   All P1 drivers under 25 must n drive with more than one passenger under 21 between 11pm and 5am -   A one passenger condition also applies to any provisional driver is disqualified for a driving offence Driver Fatigue  Microsleeps Microsleep  –   a brief and unintended loss on consciousness. Characterised by head snapping, nodding, or closing your eyes for more than a couple of seconds. -   Microsleeps commonly occur when you try to stay awake whil performing monotonous tasks like driving. They can last from a few seconds to several minutes. The best way to avoid driver fatigue is to make sure you have enough sleep before driving. There are 3 sleep factors to consider before deciding whether or not to start driving: -   Circadian rhythms  –    we are programmed by our body‟s circadian rhythms to sleep at night and  be awake during the say. o   During night time hours most types of human performance are impaired, inclulding our ability to drive. -   Sleep debt  –   when we reduce the amount we sleep each night, we start to accumulate a sleep debt. o   When we have a sleep debt, our tendency to fall asleep the next day increases. The larger the sleep debt, the stronger the tendency to sfall asleep. -   Sleep inertia  –   the feeling of grogginess you get after waking. o   It can affect your ability to perform even simple tasks o   Usually reversed within 15 minutes by activity in noise, however can last up to 4 hours  Driver Fatigue Driver fatigue makes us less aware of what is happening on the road and impairs our ability to respond quickly and safely if a dangerous situation arises.  You are 3 times more likely to have a fatal fatigue crash if you‟re driving between dusk and dawn   If you fall into a microsleep and nod off at 100 km/h, you‟ll travel 111 metres in just four seconds, unconscious. Symptoms of driver fatigue: -   Trouble focussing, narrowing of attention -   Head nodding, or inability to keep the eyes open -    Not remembering the last few minutes -   Poor judgement, slower reaction time -   “Zoning out” -   Daydreaming and wandering thoughts -   Constant yawning or rubbing your eyes -   Drifting in the lane High risk: -   The driver is often alone, having been driving for some hours -   Time period between midnight and 6am -   Typically involve a single vehicle in rural areas that departs the driving lane and collides with another object, such as a tree beside the road or another vehicle. -   Young male drivers and riders in rural areas, drivers aged over 50 and sift workers with long hours Government Legislation and Initiatives Legislation/ Initiative What it is? How does it reduce motor vehicle accidents? Speeding -   40km speed zones in high pedestrian areas e.g. school zones -   Going slower means shorter stopping distances and lower impact speed if you hit something/someone -   Flashing lights creates awareness of nearby pedestrians -   50km speed zones in local suburban streets -   Going slower means shorter stopping distances and lower impact speed if you hit something/someone -   Speed zones dependent on the area -   Speeding cameras - fixed (large pole with a camera on the top, doesn‟t move and has signage around it) and mobile (hand held, usually held by  police in their cars) speed cameras -   Make people aware of their speeding so they will reduce it -   Safety camera: like a speed camera  but detects running red lights -   Place them at accident prone intersections to make people aware and slow down  -   Physically changing the shape of road e.g. speed humps, chicane, roundabout, island -   Forces people to slow down to go around it Seat belts -   Use of seatbelts is compulsory, ensuring they always wear them -   Decline in road deaths, equivalent to thousands of lives each year. -   Stops people‟s inertia from sending them forward through the windscreen -   Child restraint guidelines according to age -   -   Seatbelt advertising -   Crea -   Double demerit points if you break road rules during holiday periods -   Encourages people to not break road rules Graduated Licencing System -   Pass the „Driver Knowledge Test‟ to get your L‟s   o   Drive for 120 hours (100 in the day, 20 at night) under the supervision of an unrestricted license holder. -   Pass the driving test to get your P1 (provisional one, red Ps) o   Allowed to drive without supervision o   Between 11pm and 5am o   Restrictions on the type of cars you can drive e.g. no turbo or V8 charged cars o   If you‟ve been tested in an automatic you drive a manual o   0 alcohol limit o   90km/h speed limit o   1 year -   Pass the hazard perception test to get your P2 (provisional two, green Ps) o   100km/h restrictions o   0 blood alcohol limit o   Curfew doesn‟t exist o    No turbo charged or V8 cars o   Can drive either manual or automatic o   2 years -   Gives novice drivers the chance to safely build experience on the road and improve driving skills as they move from a learner to a full license. -   Less passengers means less distractions by friends in the car -   Makes sure you can actually drive -   Allows young brains to mature as they drive -   Targeted at young people because they are over represented in car accidents
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