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Artificial insemination in pigs-technology to boost pork production

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Artificial insemination in pigs-technology to boost pork production
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    Select   Search HomeKnowledge ModelsExtension MaterialInteractionsNewsroomAbout UsVideo Assistance Home ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN PIGS- TECHNOLOGY TO BOOST PORK PRODUCTION View Rev   isions Submitted by M Karunakaran on Mon, 13/05/2013 - 17:05Posted in Engl   ish artificial insemination pig ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN PIGS- TECHNOLOGY TO BOOST PORK PRODUCTION M.Karunakaran, U.Ratnakaran, E.B.Chakurkar, P.K.Naik, N.P.SinghICAR RESEARCH COMPLEX FOR GOAOLD GOA, GOA- 4   03 402 INTRODUCTION   Artificial insem   ination is a technique in which sem   en with live sperm   s is collected from   the m   ale and introduced intofem   ale reproductive tract at proper tim   e with the help of instrum   ents under hygienic conditions that results in theform   ation of a norm   al offspring. All over the world, AI has helped to im   prove the reproduction and genetic use of farmanim   als. HISTORY OF AI   AI in dom   estic anim   als has been practiced as early as 1322 AD. In the 14 th  century, an Arab chief collected sem   enwith cotton plug and inserted to other m   are’s vagina where conception was achieved. In 1780, the first scientificresearch in artificial insem   ination of dom   estic anim   als was perform   ed on dogs by Spallanzani. His experim   ents provedthat the fertilizing power reside in the sperm   atozoa and not in the liquid contents of sem   en. The AI of swine wasinitiated by Ivanow in Russia in the early 1900s (Ivanow, 1907; Ivanoff, 1922).During the past decades, there was an increase on the usage of AI by swine producers. The m   ain purpose is m   ainlyto use genetically superior boars so that the producers gain a lot of benefit through insem   ination, but for asuccessful insem   ination to occur the AI schedule should be optim   ized. For a successful production, the AI programshould require skilled m   anagem   ent, especially in the detection of proper estrus in sows, proper handling of sem   en andfollow proper insem   ination procedure and finally result in high conception rate and litter size. AI in pigs poses specialproblem   s chiefly due to the anatom   y of the reproductive tract and the polycotous nature of litter bearing.During natural m   ating, the boar ejaculates 50-70 billion sperm   atozoa in the cervical canal, which later passes into theuterine body and horns. Only those sperm   s that reach the fertilization site are capable of overcom   ing the fem   alehostile environm   ent. A large am   ount of sem   inal plasm   a (250- 400m   l) is also added to the sem   en volum   e that helps inthe distention of body and horns. The glans penis of the boar enters the cervix   during m   ating. A pressure is appliedon the glans as it enters the cervical canal to facilitate ejaculation. The purpose of insem   ination is to establish an adequate functional sperm   reservoir in the oviduct to fertilize all theovulated oocytes. The insem   ination procedure deposits the sem   en dose within the posterior portion of the cervicalcanal by a catheter that engages the folds of the cervix. Over the past decade, new insem   ination procedures basedon the deposition site of the insem   ination dose have been developed. The new protocols for sem   en depositionincludes in the uterine body (postcervical insem   ination or intrauterine insem   ination), or deep in the uterine horn (deepintrauterine insem   ination), or in the oviduct (laparoscopic intra-oviductal insem   ination).  Advantages of   AI Several breeds of boars possessing superior quality sem   en are available at various AI centres. The genetic influenceof good boars can be spread m   ore widely. AI is a safe and an inex   pensive m   ethod of introducing new genes into pigherds. AI overcom   es size differences between boars and sows. The m   aintenance cost of boars can be saved. Earlydetection of inferior m   ales can be ensured by sem   en evaluation. The sem   en of a desired size can be used even afterthe death of that particular sire. It is helpful to insem   inate the anim   als that refuse to stands or accept the m   ale atthe tim   e of oestrum   . It helps in m   aintaining the accurate breeding and farrowing records. Old, heavy and injured sirescan be used. Disadvantages of   A   I Requires well-trained operations and special equipm   ent. Necessitates the knowledge of the structure and function of reproduction on the part of operator.Im   proper cleaning of instrum   ents and in sanitary conditions m   ay lead to lowerfertility. Requires m   ore tim   e than natural services. The great variability in duration of the oestrum   (from   12 to m   orethan 96 hours) and the tim   e of ovulation am   ong the swine fem   ales. AI carried out at im   proper tim   e or doneincorrectly. Maintaining the doses at tem   perature from   15°C to 18°C. The reduced survival of the sperm   s in thefem   ale genital organs. Reduced farrowing rate (50%) with frozen sem   en. Lower than average results with chilledsem   en stored longer than 72 hours. Methods in semen collection a)Artificial vagina: It consists of a hard tubular casing with a rubber lining filled with warm   water. b) Electro-ejaculation: A m   ethod where an electrical current is applied to the pelvic nerves and m   uscles via a rectal probe,which is attached to an external power source. c) Gloved Hand technique – m   ost com   m   on m   ethod used to collectsem   en. To ensure high sperm   cell oncentration and sem   en volum   e, do not collect boars m   ore than three tim   es aweek. Shortcuts LibraryVoice MessagesVoice POPAgrowikiAgroblogForumAbout agropedia User loginUsername: *Password: * Log in Create new   accountRequest new   password Featured UserHemant Sharma   A User from Hanumangarh,Rajasthan,India His contributions to agropediaOther ContributorsHistoryNew ReleasesK    VK-NetvKVK agropedia imagesNew in ag   ropedia Multilingual EditorStatistics Registered Users: 8347  Last Registered User:l   arrymetzgerw   fdqvgvbPubl   ished Nodes: 28022  Boar semen   The boar m   atures between 6 and 8 m   onths, and donates sem   en. The volum   e is about 200 to 500 m   l. Theejaculations are in 3 sets. The first and third do not contain sperm   atozoa but the second is rich in sperm   s. In 1969,McDonald reported that, the boar's ejaculate is delivered in three portions. The pre-sperm   portion is a sticky,strongly coherent, m   ucus substance, the second fraction contains the sperm   atozoa and the post-sperm   fraction is aviscous, gel-containing portion. The gel constitutes 20 -25% of the total volum   e of the ejaculate.Boars are trained to m   ount live or dum   m   y fem   ales and ejaculate. In case the boar shows no interest, the dum   m   y canbe sm   eared with the urine of oestrus fem   ale which will enhance the libido and lead to quicker ejaculations. Theaverage duration of ejaculation is 10 m   inutes but varies considerably between boars. The sem   en from   one ejaculatecan be used to insem   inate 15 to 25 sows. Evaluating boar semen   Volume;   Sem   en volum   e varies between 100 and 500 m   L and can be m   easured with a graduated m   easuring cylinder. Motility   Subjective assessm   ent of sperm   cell m   otility is the best way of estim   ating sem   en quality. Using the low power lens(10X) of a m   icroscope, ex   am   ine sem   en on a warm   slide (30 to 35°C) im   m   ediately after collection. Good quality sem   enshows a typical 'wave' m   otion and individual sperm   atozoa m   ovem   ent. A poor sam   ple shows weak m   otility and'clum   ping' of sperm   atozoa. Motility depends on how m   uch of each fraction is collected. If the collection is m   ainlysperm   -rich fraction, there is higher m   otility and wave m   otion than when accessory fluids dilute the sem   en. If totalabnorm   alities are less than 25%, sem   en quality is satisfactory. Storage of semen   If the sem   en is to be stored, it should be diluted or extended im   m   ediately following collection. Before m   ixing, both thediluents and sem   en should be bought to sam   e tem   perature (32 to 35°C) in a warm   water bath. To avoid diluentshock, gently add the diluent to the sem   en, not the sem   en to the diluents and later agitate slowly for proper m   ix   ingof both solutions. The diluted sem   en can further be evaluated and stored at 15-18°C. ESTRUS DETECTION IN SOW   Heat detection is the m   ost im   portant and tim   e consum   ing part of an A.I. breeding program   . Heat detection is am   atter of observing changes in appearance and/or behavior that occur when an anim   al com   es into heat The goal of heat detection is to determ   ine when the sow or gilt reaches standing heat. Standing heat is the period when afem   ale stands still and rigid when weight is applied on her loin. For a successful insem   ination, detection of standingheat is the m   ost im   portant criteria. Gilts should be bred 12 hours after standing heat is detected, and again 12 hourslater. Sows should be bred 18-24 hours after detection of standing heat, and again 12 hours later.  Behavioral changes observed during est   rum   Sows and gilts that are com   ing into heat m   ay chant, growl or m   ake other unusual noises and attem   pt to ride othersows. Sows in heat show increased interest in boars placed in an adjacent pen. As a sow or gilt begins to showincreased activity, her vulva often reddens and swells and begin to subside 12 to 36 hours before the anim   alreaches standing heat. When a fem   ale is in standing heat, the clitoris is engorged with blood, causing it to protrudeoutward and have a bright red color. Fem   ales often have an increased discharge of m   ucous from   the vulva as theyapproach standing heat. At first the m   ucous is clear, slick and slim   y, but usually becom   es cloudy and sticky duringstanding heat. Straw or bedding stuck to the vulva is another sign that the anim   al is discharging sticky m   ucous. Afem   ale in standing heat will stand still and rigid, and m   ay push back by arching her back slightly when weight isapplied to the loin. This is an instinctive response that braces her to support the weight of the boar. Ear popping is asure sign that the anim   al is in standing heat. Insemination Technique The insem   ination procedure consists of the conventional m   ethod of insem   ination, post-cervical insem   ination orintrauterine insem   ination), deep in the uterine horn (deep intrauterine insem   ination) and in the oviduct (laparoscopicintra-oviductal insem   ination). Conventional AI     It was the first to be developed and is the m   ost straight forward in application.Around, 2.5– 3.5 billion sperm   atozoa are insem   inated in 80– 100 m   L   of ex   tender via a sim   ple catheter located at thedistal cervix.  METHOD The sow or gilt should be in standing heat. Clean the vulva with a dam   p cloth or paper towel so as to preventcontam   inants being pushed into the reproductive tract when the insem   ination rod is inserted. The insem   ination rodscom   e in a variety of shapes and sizes. The two m   ost com   m   on styles are rods with counterclockwise threads on thetip, and foam   tipped rods. When using threaded rods, lubricate the tip with sem   en or a little KY Jelly before gentlyinserting it into the vulva. Angle the rod tip upward (toward the backbone) to avoid the opening to the bladder. Pushthe rod gently and continue to twist counterclockwise until the tip is locked into the cervix. When the tip is locked,the rod will spring back into place when you pull gently on it. Foam   tipped rods do not need to be rotated. Gentlypush on the rod until you feel the foam   tip catch in the folds of the cervix   .  Post-cervical or intrauterine insemination   The aim   of this insem   ination procedure is the deposition of the sperm   atozoa in the uterine body. The m   ain obstacleto the post-cervical insem   ination is the cervical canal, characterized by the presence of the cervical folds. Them   ajority of the devices are assisted by a com   m   ercial AI spirette used to produce a cervical lock. The devices, usually15–20 cm   longer than a conventional catheter, and these are inserted through the lum   en of the spirette, and thenextend through the cervical canal forward to the uterine body. Most com   m   only 1000 m   illion sperm   atozoa in a volum   eof 30 m   L   are insem   inated. The m   ain advantage cited is decreased backflow loss and it was recently reported that  Home | Knowledge Model | Disclaimer | Faq | Sitemap | Feedback | agropedia Survey | Multilingual Editor agropedia is developed under the sponsorship of ICA   R, NA   IP the percentage of backflow volum   e was nearly two-thirds of the insem   inated volum   e. Careful attention should bepaid to proper insem   ination technology to m   inim   ise the incidence of cervical and uterine dam   age, since the sem   i-rigidextended catheters can dam   age reproductive tissues.  Low-dose insemination: deep intrauterine insemination   The objective of deep intrauterine insem   ination (DUI) is the deposition of the sperm   atozoa into the far depths of theuterine horns. The m   ain obstacle to DUI of sows is the com   plex anatom   y of their genital tract, not only by thepresence of the cervical folds (the sam   e as for post-cervical insem   ination), but also by the length and coiled natureof the uterine horns. The new, specially designed device has a working length of 1.80 m   , 4 m   m   outer diam   eter, and1.80 m   m   diam   eter of the inner tubing. Deep uterine catheterization is perform   ed after the insertion of a com   m   ercialAI spirette (to produce a cervical lock). The catheter is then inserted through the spirette, m   oved through thecervical canal, and propelled forward along the uterine body and uterine horn. The DUI procedure has beensuccessfully used with concentration of sperm   atozoa 150–600 m   illion in liquid diluted, and 1000 m   illion frozen–thawedsam   ples.  Very low-dose insemination: intra-oviduct   al insemination The developm   ent of techniques to insem   inate into the oviduct is believed to be able to m   ax   im   ally reduce the num   berof sperm   atozoa required. Laparoscopy is a less invasive technique than laparotom   y for depositing sem   en directly intothe uterus or oviduct. In sows, depositing sperm   atozoa by laparoscopy in the uterine horn, close to the uterotubal junction, achieves high (92.3%) fertilization rates with only 10–20 m   illion sperm   atozoa per horn. Intra-oviductalinsem   ination does introduce a high num   ber of sperm   atozoa into the oviduct (0.3–0.6 m   illion sperm   atozoa. Theincidence of polysperm   ic penetration is very low when 0.3 or 0.5 m   illion sperm   atozoa are insem   inated.T hereforelaparoscopic insem   ination has a highpotential effectiveness for obtaining pregnancies with a very low num   ber of sperm   atozoa. All of these insem   ination procedures should be useful tools for the pig industry.  Conclusion   Whether using sem   en collected on-farm   or buying it from   an AI centre, successful insem   ination hinges on:detecting oestrus in the sowcorrectly timing the inseminationusing the right techniquecorrect storage and handling of semen Your rating: Your rating: None Login or register to post comments 34 reads Active Users Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.
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