Asim Shoaib Gynae Points

asim shoaib gynae points for fcps part 1
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    Obstetrics & Gynecology Specificity of a test refers to detect true negative The positive predictive value of a test is the proportion of true positivbes among all positives Ischaemic heart disease breast cancer advice regarding osteoporosis best management option raloxifene (SERM) Effects of diazepam in the foetus except hyprtonia The efficiency of the combined oral contraceptive pill is reduced by the following drugs except sodium valproate Drugs cause photosensitivity reactions except amiodorone, quinolones, sulphonamides, tetracyclines Mitral stenosis is 28 weeks pregnant. Increasing dysponea cause pulmonary hypertension Oral contraceptive pills absolute contraindication active liver disease Heavy cyclic vaginal bleed D&C histopathology showed earluy secretory phase endoterium anti-fibinolytic agents. 38 year woman G3 P2, Last born 10 years ago presents at antenatal care. What test she is advised to undergo chronic villus sampling (down, 12 wk) Following are the changes in the fetal circulation at birth except aortic pressure is decreased due to increased systemic resistance Prolactin release is stimulated by the following except dopamine Hormones or substances synthesized by the kidneys include the following except 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (vit D3) Recognized cause of hirsutism congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diazosice treatment, phenytoin administration, the stein-leventhal syndrome Hypokalemia cushing’s syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, p rolonged vomiting, renal tubular acidosis Following are the effects of anaemia on the circulatory system except deceased cardiac output The following are used to assess adrenocortical function except urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid The fallopian tubes develop from the paramesonephric ducts Contraindications to intravenous beta adrenergic therapy in obstetric practice insulin dependent diabetes First maturation division of primary oocyte results in secondary ooctyte and first polar body Adults the spinal cord terminates at the intervertebral disc between L1, L2 The brain stem consists of all of the following except cerebellum The secondary oocyte undergoes the second reduction division after fertilization Lateral fornix (Right) of the vagina is closely related to ureter Uterine prolapse is usually due to the weakness of cardinal (transverse cervical) ligament Everted ischial spines Gynaecoid pelvis Fallot’s tetralogy comprise infundibular stenosis, over riding aorta, variable an atomy of pulmonary artery, ventricular hyper trophy , ventricular septal defect Median umbilical ligament is the permanent of urachus Following are male/female homologue structures except prostate gland and greater vestibular gland Regarding the femoral ring following statements are true except it has lacunar ligament in its lateral  boundary Palm and sole no sab aceous gland In cardiac cycle the dicrotic notch is due to rebound of aortic valve  Nucleolus large amounts or RNA The PO2 (partial pressure of 02) in the blood at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated with oxygen is about 26mmHg Starling’s law of the heart does operate during exercise Atmospheric pressure 1bar Storage of platelets at room temperature is that it optimizes platelet function Use of accessory muscles and nasal flaring are sings of labored breathing     Normal paramenters for SPO2 reading in a healthy person is 90 -100% In a patient with a flail chest being ventilated, receiving 1.4L/Min. the most appropriate management would  be reducing the peak inspiratory flow rate The drug no useful in the treatment of infertility is prolactin Endogenous smooth muscle relaxant is endorphin The most common adverse effect of diazepam used during labour is fetal heart rate variability A lignocaine plasma level of 10mcg/ml corresponds to the onset of convulsions  Non-pharmacological measures should preferably be tried first in minor self limiting conditions Therapy with Gaonadotropin may result in Amenorrhea Gonorrhoe ofloxcin Type II (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus prescribe tulbutamide or al sulphonyl urea Estrogen progestin combination oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is inhibition of ovulation Abrupt withdrawal of Glucocorticoids advisable not suppression of adrenal cortical secretions Lignocaine overdose is managed by hydrocortisone Propranolol is commonly used in the treatment of essential hypertension Fluids are secreted by vaginal walls mainly due to the action of VIP Life span of sperms 24-48 hours Vaginal secretion of female a PH 3.5 to 4.0 Estrogens cause the skin to become soft Maturation of surfactants in the lung is accelerated by Glucocorticoid hormones ADH dependent facilitatory reabsorption of water is maximum is both distal and collecting tubules Kallman’s sy ndrome is characterized by hypogonadism Sheehan’s syndrome results in transient blindness Synthesis of thyroxin binding of iodine to tyrosine Thyroid hyperfunction mostly leads to marked tachycardia Type of protein synthesized by ribosomes is determined by its nucleotide composition of RNA Gluconeogenesis is not stimulated by growth hormone Regarding hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, following statements are true except may be due to ovarian or testicular disease Calcium absorption is increased by 1, 25-dihyroxycholecalciferol Expected to reduce maternal behavior loss of expression of the gene for fos-B Secretion of which of the following hormones does not increase at night insulin Following does not increase the outpout of glucose from the liver insulin Hypothyroidism due to disease of the thyroid gland is associate with increased plasma levels of cholesterol Iron absorption from the intestine is increased by ferrous form Bilirubin released into circulation from the reticuloendothelial system is bound by plasma proteins  Norepinephrine will cause contraction of the smooth muscle in the arterioles The kidney is involved in the activation of cholecalciferol Proteolytic Enzyme not present in the pancreatic secretion is aminopeptidase Digestion of the starch begins in the mouth due to the salivary enzyme amylase Increased parathyroid hormone secretion during pregnancy results from inhibitory effect of estrogens on  bone resorption action of parathormone Blood sugar is not increased by mild exercise Feature resulting from persistant low serum calcium do not include increased calcitonine secretion In the presence of oxygen the end product of glycolysis two molecules of pyruvic acid One molecule of glucose is completely ATP molecules is 38 Synthesis of urea in the liver is important because it removes Ammonia Essential fatty acid is arachidonic acid The vitamin having antioxidant action is E    The chemical transmitter involved in the onset of labour and cervical ripening is mostly likely to be nitric oxide To initiate contraction calcium binds with Calmodulin The second messenger synthesized due to binding with G-protein linked receptors is cyclic AMP Highest content of triglycerides is present in chylomicorones >VLDC The precursor for protostaglandins is arachiodonic acid Substance which cannot be exreted in the urine is unconjugated bilirubin Vitamin K is not involve d in the synthesis of clotting factor fibrinogen Contain about 2-3 of the total blood volume are veins During pregnancy decrease in the total lung capacity Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted to the left by fetal hemoglobin Blood Transfusion reaction group A+ is transfused with AB- AV nodal delay is shortened by sympathetic stimulation The pulse pressure increase when there is an increase in stroke volume Venous pressure (MM HG) in the superior sagittal sinus is about -10 Dead space volume is decreased in tracheostomy In resting muscles, the interaction between action and myosin is inhibited by the bond between actin and troponin At rest, about 70% of oxygen in its arterial blood is extracted by the heart muscle Emptying of the stomach is stimulated by gastrin Platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction is promoted by thromboxane A2 Control of circadian rhythm fibers from the visual pathway pass to suprachiasmatic nuleus of the hypothalamus Increased permeability of the SA nodal fibers membrane for potassium decreases heart rate PR interval in the ECG is prolonged in AV blocks Coronary blood flow is controlled mainly by myocardial oxygen consumption Redness (Flare) due to arteriolar dilatation. This response is due to axon reflex Severe anemia blood flow turbulent due to decreased blood viscosity Microtubules in centrioles Anion Gap is decreased in metabolic alkalosis Formation of interstitial fluid increases with decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure Phosphate buffer is powerful than the bicarbonate buffer because its pk is 6.8  Not likely to be present in metabolic acidosis is increased plasma bicarbonate Blastocycst, consists of an embryoblas and a trophblast, develops an amniotic cavity by the 8 th  day,sometimes implant in the ovary , usually implants along the anterior or posterior walls of the uterine  body Ovum surrounded by a non-cellular layer zona pellucida The urorectal septum divides the cloca into rectum and urogenital sinus Following are the cause of irreversible renal failure except renal tumor Uterine cavity is obliterated during pregnancy by fusion of decidua copsularis and dicedua parietalis Allantois does not function in human membryos , extends from the umbilicus to the urinary bladder, purely endodermal in srcin, takes part in blood formation during third to fifth weeks Fetus blood with lowest concentration of oxygen is found in the superior vena cava Progesterone is a precursor of aldosterone cortisol and corticosterone Sulpha drugs interfere with bacterial synthesis of tetrahydrofolate Active transport requires energy, usually in the form of phosphate anhydride bonds The free fatty acids of blood are mainly bound to serum albumin Interferons cause degradation of viral mRNA Fetal hemoglobin has a lower bohr effect Semi essential amino acid arginine    Estrogens are characterized by the absence of a methyl group at C-10 Aspirin acts by inhibition of cyclooxygenase Ketosis increased fat utilization A hyperglycemic factor glucagon Intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulation pathways converge at stuart factor Xa Psychological buffer in the blood bicarbonate buffer Ration of alkaline PO to Acid PO4 in blood is 41 Dietary fibre affects digestion of other dietary components Whole wheat is an excellent source of thiamine Cuboccupitofrontal diameter is measure from the glabella to the posterior fontanelle Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid CoA-SH, lipoic acid, Mg++, TPP Loss of water by insensible perspiration though the skin 600-800ml Glucose absorbed from proximal convoluted tubule Acid-base state PaCO2 and HCO3 Testosterne increases protein systhesis in bones and muscles First line of defence during bleeding is provided by blood vessels Blood group O negative has no antibodies to the ABO system in her blood 32 days ovulation 18 th  day of the ovarian cycle Defect is in globin genes : Thalassemia Lysosomes are produced by Golgi apparatus Resting membrane potential is mainly due to outward potassium diffusion After operation type of anaemia blood loss Sodium pump is stimulated by increasing intracellular Na+T Blood group B +ve exchange transfusion with B-ive blood Absorption of iron is adversely affected by ingestion with citrus fruits  Normal pregnancy is associated with decreased serum albumin Two abortions concerned about the porsibility of recurrence of abortion change of recurrence is not increased Quickening the 16 th  or 17 th  weeks Plasma fibrinogen is converted into fibrin during blood clotting The grasp reflex is present by the end of 3rdpostnatal month 4 th  week syncytium, cytotrophoblast, connective tissue, endothelium Diagnosing people with the condition sensitivity Exclude a particular diagnosis likehood ration Pregnant dies in a roadside accident this death is defined as fortuitous death Excluding people without the condition specificity Enzyme for conjugation of bilirubin glucoronyl transferase Doppler ultrasound pulsatility is increased in growth restricted feotus Maternal mortality ration (MMR), is expressed as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births Ultrasound waves utilize sound waves with an upper frequency of 20KHz Pre-eclampsia significant change in the fall of disease is due to fall in maternal and perinatal mortality Clopiphene stimulatesovultion Estrogen thrombophlebitis  Not a recognized action of terbutaline diuretic effect X-Ray chest of a pregnant woman exploses her to a radiation of Rads Induction of drug metabolizing enzyme include phenobarbitone Plasma half life of a drug depends on its rate of clearance Breast cancer tamoxifen Acute biliary colic besides morphine hyoscine butylbromide Travelling by air cyclizine
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