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Assessment of Particulates Matrix Ratio and Its Influence on Mechanical Properties of Granite Particulates

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Assessment of Particulates Matrix Ratio and Its Influence on Mechanical Properties of Granite Particulates
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  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   266   ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATES MATRIX RATIO AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GRANITE PARTICULATES REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITE Joel Antony D’Mello [1] , S. S. Balakrishna [2] [1] M Tech Scholar,   Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahyadri College of Engineering & Management, Karnataka, India [2] Professor & Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahyadri College of Engineering & Management, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT Influence of epoxy content and granular size of granite in processing of prepared PMC using epoxy polymeric matrix reinforced with granite particulates has been investigated. The percentage of epoxy content, granite granular ratio and Compressive load are the parameters used for the study. An L27 orthogonal array and ANOVA were used to emphasize the contribution of individual parameters. The test samples subjected to compression test recorded a high compressive strength of 116 MPa for 20 percentage of weight epoxy and 50-50 granite particulate ratio. Keywords:  ANOVA, Compression, Compressive Strength, Epoxy, Granite. 1. INTRODUCTION The use of fiber reinforced composite materials has found growing importance in every field of engineering due to its overwhelming advantages over conventional materials. However the presence of two or more dissimilar phases indicts the composite material into encountering prominent challenges during material characterization. The testing processes involved in fiber reinforced composite materials are not the same as in the case of conventional metals due to their stress and load handling capacity. Therefore, testing of composite materials usually incorporates conditions and requirements that are not encountered in conventional metal testing. Here an alternative material embedded with high stiffness and damping is used for making machine tool structure. Epoxy granite is one such material that exhibits good material properties like high stiffness, damping and coefficient of thermal expansion. Thus the present study involves analyzing the material properties of epoxy granite experimentally .  The compressive strength is largely being considered as an advertence property for structural applications and is popularly called to be known as material strength. The optimization of compressive strength and the understanding its relationship with the processing variables may be accomplished by applying statistical techniques such as design of experiments (DOE). The main advantage of applying DOE is the possibility of assigning a great number of variables and studying interactions between them. The number of total experimental runs (N) or experimental observations are determined by the relation N = m k  , where m defines the number of levels of each variable under investigation and k, number of variables under investigation. Antonio et al [1]  conducted compression tests on epoxy polymeric matrix reinforced with particulate ceramic granite. Experiments were planned and executed according to the Factorial design technique using two variables at two levels. The obtained cylindrical samples were submitted to compressive strength tests and the results showed a maximum   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 266-270 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJMET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com   IJMET   © I A E M E    Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   267   resistance of 114.23 MPa at 20 (%) weight epoxy. Lee et al [2] studied the slides of high speed CNC milling machines designed with fiber reinforced composite materials to overcome high speed operations. These fabricated composite structures reduced the weight of the vertical and horizontal slides considerably by 34% and 26% respectively, and increased damping by 1.5–5.7 times without sacrificing stiffness. Sulaiman et al [3]  studied the effect of hardener on mechanical properties of carbon reinforced phenolic resin composites experimentally. The results delineated that composite with 15% hardener content show an increase in flexural strength, tensile strength and hardness. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), flexural strength and hardness for 15% hardener were recorded to be 411.9 MPa, 51.7 MPa and 85.4 HRR respectively. Rama Krishna et al [4]  concluded that granite epoxy composite materials are resistant to acetic acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Flaminio et al [5]  studied   damping effect on   Granite-epoxy which was found to be significantly higher than the gray cast iron. For the same volume of composite materials with weight fractions of about 80% of granite and 20% of epoxy, damping properties showed approximately three times increment compared to gray cast iron. Selvakumar et al [6]  concluded that for the same stiffness, the epoxy granite structure offers considerable weight reduction with very good damping characteristics. Ravindra et al [7]  studies revealed that toughened epoxy resin composites with Hydroxyl terminated polyurethane (HTPU) in different proportions enhance the properties compared to neat matrix. The tensile and flexural strength of granite powder filled 1% HTPU toughened epoxy composites showed a superior result compared to those of granite powder filled epoxy composites. Jung et al [8]  conducted studies to improve the damping characteristics of a spindle cover for high speed machine tools; the cover was reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composite. The tests revealed damping improvement of composite hybrid spindle over a wide frequency range. Based on the literature cited above the present work is one such attempt to analyze the material characterization of Granite epoxy composites by compression tests. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 2.1 Materials The matrix implemented was epoxy with a standard grade of L12 (3202) since it provides good resistance to alkalis and good adhesive properties and a K6 hardener was used. The reinforcement employed was Ceramic Granite, crushed and sieved to different granular sizes to accumulate the study. Two different granular sizes of 75-105 micro meter and 300-424 micro meter were selected and experimentation was conducted for a 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 granule mixtures. The sample preparation was planned by first adding hardener to epoxy resin in ratio of 1:10 followed by mixing with granite to promote heterogeneity in compression samples. The specimens used in the study were Teflon molded. The mould cavities followed ASTM 695 and L/D ratio was fixed to 2. The obtained specimens remained in cavity for 24 hours followed by 4 hours of heat curing at 60ºC initially and then cured for 200 hours at room temperature. 2.2 Plan of Experiments The Taguchi technique for the design of experiments is used for the plan of experiments with three factors at three levels. The design parameters considered were weight percentage of Epoxy and granite granular ratio. The factors that are considered in this experiment along with their levels are as shown in Table 1. The experiment consists of 27 tests corresponding to the number of rows and columns assigned with the parameters. The first column is assigned to weight percentage of epoxy content and second column to granite granular ratio. A standard L 27  orthogonal array was chosen with twenty seven rows and two columns as presented in Table 2. The experiments were conducted as per the orthogonal array with level of parameters given in each row. The test results were subjected to the analysis of variance. Table 1: Process parameters and their values Level Epoxy Wt% Granite Granule Mix 1 15 50-50 2 20 60-40 3 25 70-30 2.3 Experimentation Compression tests were carried on the specimen using FIE make Universal Testing Machine of 40Ton capacity, establishing a load rate of 1.2kN/min. The specimens prepared as per ASTM were subjected to compression at steady state loading till fracture to observe the maximum compressive strength. The compressive strength was recorded through an FIE software interfaced to the UTM. The material characterization is measured as a function of Epoxy content and Granular grit ratio.  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   268   3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The material characterization and behavior of the granite–epoxy composites has been studied as a function of Epoxy and granite weight content. The results obtained as per the L 27  orthogonal array are shown in the Table 3. 3.1 Analysis of Variance The objective of employing analysis of variance (ANOVA) was to inspect the parametric significance on the compressive property of the composite. The results of the experimental analysis are shown in Table 3. The maximum compressive strength observed during the test was recorded to be 116 MPa and this was observed for an epoxy weight percentage of 20 and 50:50 granite granular grit ratio. These results are subjected to Analysis of variance as shown in Table 4 and studied accordingly. The last column of the tables shows the percentage contribution of each factor on the total variation indicating the influence of the parameter on the compression. Table 2:   Orthogonal array L 27 of Taguchi Table 3: Experimental Results Considering the Anova results for compression tests shown in Table 4; it highlighted statistically that variable epoxy content was significant having a probability of approximately 63%, while granite granulation did not exhibit a significant outcome on the compressive strength showing a diminished probability of 1.3%. Similarly the interaction between epoxy and granite granules showed a impending probability of approximately 15%. It is remarkable to scrutinize that at an epoxy weight percentage of 20, exhibited highest compressive strength of 116 MPa compared to 15 percent and 25 percent in weight. To highlight during fabrication of specimen 15 % by weight of epoxy and remaining percentage by weight of granite granule mix, observations were made that small quantity of epoxy was not able to exhibit complete wet ability which created difficulties in manual fabrication. For more content of epoxy, other 25% by weight showed sedimentation of granite granules took place in the mould cavity during curing process. SI No Epoxy Content Granite Granule Ratio 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 2 5 1 2 6 1 2 7 1 3 8 1 3 9 1 3 10 2 1 11 2 1 12 2 1 13 2 2 14 2 2 15 2 2 16 2 3 17 2 3 18 2 3 19 3 1 20 3 1 21 3 1 22 3 2 23 3 2 24 3 2 25 3 3 26 3 3 27 3 3 Epoxy Weight % Granite Granule Mix Compressive Strength MPa 15 50-50 76 15 50-50 76 15 50-50 73 15 60-40 90 15 60-40 93 15 60-40 89 15 70-30 73 15 70-30 100 15 70-30 99 20 50-50 112 20 50-50 105 20 50-50 116 20 60-40 112 20 60-40 109 20 60-40 107 20 70-30 110 20 70-30 102 20 70-30 99 25 50-50 105 25 50-50 98 25 50-50 105 25 60-40 93 25 60-40 105 25 60-40 96 25 70-30 103 25 70-30 106 25 70-30 99  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   269   Fig.1: Experimental results for Variation of Compressive strength with respect to Epoxy weight percentage for different granular ratios Table 4: ANOVA for Compression tests of Granite Epoxy Source DF SS MS F P P% Epoxy Content_1 2 2404.96 1202.48 28.55 0 63.32 Granule Grit Ratio 2 52.52 26.26 0.62 0.547 1.3 Interaction 4 570.59 142.65 3.39 0.031 15 Error 18 758 42.11 20 Total 26 3786.07 32111010510095908580321EPOXY CONTENT      M    e    a    n FIBER GRIT RATIO Main Effects Plot for COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/sq mm Data Means   14013012011010090807060 999590807060504030201051 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/sq mm      P    e    r    c    e    n     t Mean 98.11StDev 11.85N 27 AD 0.895P-Value 0.019 Probability Plot of COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/sq mm Normal - 95% CI   Fig. 2: Variation of Compression strength Fig. 3: Normal probability plot of with respect to Epoxy and Grit ratio Compressive strength 32111010090803211101009080 EPOXY CONTENTFIBER GRIT RATIO 123CONTENTEPOXY 123RATIOGRITFIBER  Interaction Plot for COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/sq mm Data Means   Fig. 4: Interaction plots of variables
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