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Assessment on major banana disease status

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Assessment on major banana disease status
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  Assessment of   major banana disease status: The case Arba Minch ZuriaWoreda and Mihirab Abaya Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, SNNPR. thio!ia. 1 Getachew Gudero Mengesha; gechnig@gmail.com   , +251 81 94 31. 1 Southern Agricultural Research Institute Arba Minch Agricultural Research Cente. Abstract he !ield and "ualit! o# $anana is %oor $ooth in #armer and state #arm sectors, mainl! due the attac&s o# diseases, low le'el o# in'estment and declining soil #ertilit!. Moreo'er, wilt disease is considered to $e themost im%ortant disease to limit $anana %roducti'it!. (o #ar success#ul cro% %roduction and %rotectionde%ends on understanding o# how cro% grow and de'elo%, how 'arious #actors a##ecting cro% growth andde'elo%ment, and how each #actors can $e modi#ied and managed. )ith these regards the o$*ecti'es are toassess $anana $acterial wilt an! other wilt disease and determination #or the area ado%tion o# controlmethods $! #armers and state #arm sector em%lo!ers, and to ensure their technical &nowhow on s%ecialie $anana %roduction and %rotection and draw im%lication o# e-tensions in general and in %articular to &nowthe status o# $anana $acterial wilt disease and other wilt diseases gi'ing alternati'e solution against thediseases.  s!stemic assessment o# smallscale #armers/ #ields and commercial $anana growing areas has $een carried out. he %re'alence o# disease was assessed at selected &e$eles o# r$a Minch 0uria andMihira$ $a!a woredas using de'elo%ed "uestionnaire and G(. ata o$tained during #ield 'isit incidencecounting and #rom res%ondents/ #armer were entered in to Microso#t -cel and anal!ses with a%%ro%riatestatistical tools. he la$orator! result indicated that $acteria wilt   Xanthomonas campestris Pv.musacearum ) ; #ungus wilt   Fusarium oxysporum . sp. Cubense  and (egato&a wilt   Mycosphaerella i!iensis  diseases were caused wilt on test $anana %lants in the #ields. t %resent conditions the #usariumwilt, (egato&a and $acterial wilt disease were %resent and #usarium wilt and (egato&a were widel!distri$uted in most o# the areas assessed with an in#ection 'ar!ing #rom 6 to 75  #or #usarium wilt and166 #or (egato&a disease, $acterial wilt disease also 'ar!ing #rom 6 to 72.72, causing considera$ledamage to the cro%. he ma-imum disease incidence o# 75 and 72.72 #or #usarium wilt and $acterialwilt were o$ser'ed in (helle Mela &e$ele and )oe&a &e$ele in r$a Minch 0uri!a woreda res%ecti'el!and 166 o# (egato&a disease o$ser'ed in all o'er the stud! areas. igh $acterial wilt incidence o# 72.72 was also o$ser'ed at one #arm:#ield on ech:<eren* Mus )oe&a &e$ele. uring the sur'e!ing itwas o$ser'ed that =war# >a'endish/ which is commonl! grown under r$a Minch and Mihira$ $a!aworedas does not a##ected $! $acterial wilt disease, $ut it was a##ected $! #usarium wilt and (egato&adiseases. ?ncidence o# #usarium wilt and $acterial wilt were shown in (ille, ola shara, >hano orga andn&o$er, and lgo areas res%ecti'el!, and the $anana cro% in &ola shelle, >hano Mile and Medo &e$eleswere remained #ree #rom <usarium wilt and Aacterial wilt disease. he %resent assessment on wilt diseasessuggested that inoculums o# the $acterial wilt, #usarium wilt and (egato&a diseases were $uilt u% in almostall $anana culti'ars, e-ce%t war# >a'endish incase o# $acterial )ilt, o# the stud! areas. he s%read o# wilt diseases were due to %resence o# culti'ars %rone to insect transmitted disease in an en'ironmentsuita$le #or the insect 'ectors and $anana %roduction %ractices. nd also due to lac& or ignorance o# theim%ortance o# clean %lanting material, #armers could s%read disease through use o# %otentiall! in#ected $anana suc&ers. he in#estation o# #ields or the in#ection o# $anana cro%s with disease can $e managed $!ado%ting certain course o# action. t last the research suggested that s%eci#ic %est managements withs%eci#ied recommendations on the reduction o# %athogen multi%lication, de'elo%ment and s%read.   "ey#ords:   >ro% %roduction and %rotection, Bield, Cualit!, )ilt iseases, echnologies, ssessment, $acteria,#ungus, (egato&a and %athogen multi%lication.  $.%ac&'round and (ustification he word D$ananaE is a general term em$racing a num$er o# s%ecies or h!$rids in genus  Musa  o# the #amil!Musaceae. Aanana   Musa spp . is srcinated #rom (outheast sia, in the #orest o# the Mala!sia. Most edi$le#ruited $anana, usuall! seedless, $elongs to the s%ecies  Musa accuminata . Aananas are 'igorousl! growing,monocot!ledonous her$aceous %lant, and ha'e %seodostem com%osed tightl! o# clas%ing lea# sheath, slightl!swollen at the $ase. Aananas are commonl! grown on smallholdings around homesteads. >ulti'ation isthrough clone %ro%agation, using health! suc&ers a$out 1.5 meter height and s%aced at 3m F 3m. (uc&ers are#reel! %roduced $! tree stem. Aanana grows on di'erse soil. ?deall!, $anana re"uires a dee%, well drained,loam! with high humus content. he dominant soil in ast #rica region to which $anana is grown -isols andHltisols with %h!sical conditions that is good #or root growth Ae&unda et al  ., 2663.?n the countr! $anana is widel! %roduced in traditional agricultural s!stem $! smallscale #armers andcommerciall! in state and #armers union #arms. t smallholder #armer #ields, it is %lanted either as amonoculture at lowlands and:or in a multi%le cro%%ing s!stem together with nset, co##ee, sugar cane, taro.(mallholder #armers usuall! grow $oth $anana and nset in the same #ield at midaltitudes. >ommercial $anana growing areas are geogra%hicall! se%arated #rom the nset growing areas, mainl! located at lower altitudes. Banana production is threatened by various constraints such as declining soilfertility, socioeconomic problems, pests, and diseases. he !ield and "ualit! is %oor $ooth in#armer and state #arm sectors, mainl! due the attac&s o# diseases, low le'el o# in'estment and declining soil#ertilit!, in general inade"uate a'aila$ilit! o# im%ro'ed technologies ha'e limited its success#ul culti'ation. ?n the r$aMinch and Mihira$ $a!a woredas, horticulture cro%s are widel! %roduced commerciall! intraditional agricultural s!stem %articularl! $anana $ased #arming s!stem $! smallscale #armers, state and %ri'ate #arms using irrigation #acilities. ?n these areas $anana is %lanted either as a monoculture and:or in amulti%le cro%%ing s!stem together with mango, a'ocado, moringa etcI s r$aMinch and Mihira$ $a!aworedas ha'ing irrigation #acilities, is the most suita$le and %otential #or $anana %roduction. ?n these areas $oth r$a Minch 0uria with an area under $anana is a$out J756 ha and Mihira$ $a!a with an area o# a$out4317 ha woredas are &nown to %roduce $anana in large. he area is geogra%hicall! se%arated #rom the nsetgrowing areas which limited the easil! sharing o# the common disease Aacterial wilt. owe'er, there isalwa!s a #ear o# introduction:s%read o# nset $acterial wilt #rom high lands >hencha and Aon&e  as the! aread*acent to r$aMinch $anana %lantation areas and causes serious damages to the cro%.Man! sources o# in#ection are &nown or sus%ected #or wilt disease including standing in#ected %lants, %lantresidues, contaminated tools, contaminated soil and water, traded %roducts such as #ruits, lea'es and %lantingmaterials umusha$e et al  ., 266J; Airuma et al  ., 2667. ransmission to the male $ud is the %rimar! means o# s%read $! %ollinators den Green, 2664; inaara et al  ., 266J. Aanana culti'ars $ecome most 'ulnera$le toAacterial Fanthomonas )ilt in#ection at #lowering stage since the %athogen can $e transmitted $etween %lants $! insects that 'isit #lowers #or %ollen and nectar inaara et al  ., 266J. ?n#ection through the #lower leads torotting and total destruction o# #ruits, as well as wilting o# the entire #oliage. ll $anana culti'ars aresusce%ti$le $ut some culti'ars esca%e insect transmitted disease due to their #loral mor%holog! %ersistent $racts. ?n %articular wilt disease and una'aila$ilit!:accessi$ilit! o# im%ro'ed 'arieties against the diseases arema*or constraints contri$uting much #or the %roduction and %romotion reduction o# $anana in thio%ia.Moreo'er, wilt diseases is considered to $e the most im%ortant disease to limit $anana %roducti'it! rchidoand Mes#in 199J.(o #ar success#ul cro% %roduction and %rotection de%ends on understanding o# how cro% grow and de'elo%,how 'arious #actors a##ecting cro% growth and de'elo%ment, and how each #actors can $e modi#ied andmanaged. hus, increase cro% %roduction and %rotection must $e come %rimaril! #rom the land now $eing  #ramed $! use o# im%ro'ed agricultural management and technologies. here#ore, the %re'ious research wascarried out to indents alternati'e solution #or wilt disease management. (o the research will ta&e too considered $ecause o# high occurrence o# wilt disease o# nset in the region and this %athogen also attac&ed $anana cro%s,and %eriodical sur'e! and sur'eillance o# Aanana wilt disease is 'er! essential. sta$lishment o# disease statusand identi#ication o# %re dis%osing #actors are the initial ste%s in tailoring res%onses #or management o# the %articular disease aramura et al  ., 2665. )ith these regards this %a%er re%orts the current status o# wiltdisease and an! other disease on the $anana %lant in r$aMinch and Mihira$ $a!a areas with im%ortanto$*ecti'es o# to assess $anana $acterial wilt disease determination #or the area ado%tion $! #armers and state#arm sector em%lo!ers, and to ensure their technical &nowhow on s%ecialie $anana %roduction and %rotectionand draw im%lication o# e-tensions in general and in %articular to &now the status o# $anana $acterial wiltdisease and gi'ing alternati'e solution against the diseases and to identi#! disease resistance 'arieties o#  $anana around the studies area. ).Materia*s and Methods  s!stemic assessment o# smallscale #armers/ #ields and commercial $anana growing areas o# r$a Minch0uri!a and Mihira$ $a!a )oredas o# Gamogo#a 0one in (outh ation, ationalities and eo%le Kegion(K, thio%ia has $een carried out during 2614:2615 to stud! the status o# $anana wilt disease. he %re'alence o# disease was assessed at, (ille (helle mella, lligo, ola shelle, )ee""a, ola shara, >hanoMille, >hano dorga, >hano cheli$a, etema ar, etema !er menged, mo Lanitte, n&o$er, and Meddoareas using de'elo%ed "uestionnaire and G( , where the altitudes range #rom 1167 to 1243 meter.  total o# 93 #ields were selected randoml! and the disease occurrence and in#ested %lants showing t!%ical s!m%toms!ellowing:wilting and $acterial ooe inside o# the in#ected %lant %arts o# the $acterial wilt disease wererecorded at %oc&et areas and also #usarium wilt and (egato&a disease were recorded in all studies area. <or thisstud! $oth %rimar! and secondar! data were used. he %rimar! data were collected #rom the #ields, #armersand traders in'ol'ed in the %roduction and mar&eting o# $anana. 16 #armers #rom each o# the $anana growing&e$eles were considered #or care#ul assessment. ouseholds #or the #arm 'isits were selected randoml! #romamong $anana growing households $ut the &e$eles were %ur%osel! selected #rom each woredas. dditionall!,de'elo%ment agents were as&ed to list and %rioritie other #actors that a##ect $anana %roduction in the area. hestud! includes the o'erall socioeconomic characteristics o# #armers and traders in'ol'ed in %roduction andmar&eting. o o$tained $oth "uantitati'e and "ualitati'e %rimar! data #rom the selected #ield the incidenceswere counted and res%ondents in#ormall! inter'iewed $! the enumerators. (econdar! data will $e used #romthe )oreda agricultural and rural de'elo%ment o##ice. he sur'e! was underta&en in two stages, $oth designed to ca%ture in#ormation on #actors that could acceleratedisease s%read or increase 'ulnera$ilit! o# #arming communities to the disease. he #irst stage was theadministration o# the designed "uestionnaire through an oral inter'iew with the #armers. he "uestionsaddressed, $anana culti'ars grown, %resence o# wilt and other diseases, #armer awareness o# wilt diseasemanagement %ractices, sources o# %lanting material, cultural %ractices, (e'erit! o# wilt disease on the %lan andan! other issues that could $e rele'ant to disease s%read and management. he second stage in'ol'ed 'isitingthe $anana %lot to ins%ect the %lants #or disease s!m%toms. he $anana culti'ar t!%es were identi#ied and %lants assessed #or wilt disease and other diseases and %ests. (am%les o# %lants with disease s!m%toms %ut in %ol!thene $ags, sealed, la$eled and %ut in cold $o-es #or disease con#irmation in the la$orator!.    he collecteddata were chec&ed, edited and entered to the com%uter. i##erent anal!tical tools de%ending on the t!%e o# data"uantitati'e and "ualitati'e were administered to meet the o$*ecti'es. ata o$tained during #ield 'isitincidence counting and #rom res%ondents/ #armer were entered in to Microso#t -cel and anal!ses witha%%ro%riate statistical tools. nd also the le'el o# the technical &nowledge and some other relationshi%s will $eanal!ed using descri%ti'e statistical tools .  ll data collected during inter'iew or:and guided #iled o$ser'ation  were su$*ected to statistical anal!sis. ((( was used to chec& i# the %lant di'ersit! has di##ered in homegardens in the stud! area. +.Resu*t and iscussions+.$.Pre-a*ence and distribution of banana #i*t diseases he sur'e! o# ma*or $anana disease in two woredas o# di##erent e$eles were underta&ing during 2614:2615in order to identi#! $anana diseases in the stud! areas. )ilted $ananas were o$ser'ed in r$a Minch 0uri!a)oreda and Mihira$ $a!a woreda. isease incidence is showed in a$le 1. Most o# the in#ected %lants hadwilted. he la$orator! result indicated that $acteria   Xanthomonas campestris  '. musacearum )  and #ungus  Fusarium oxysporum  #. s%. Cubense an" (egato&a   Mycosphaerella i!iensis  caused wilt on test $anana %lants in the #ields. he $acterium was identi#ied as  Xanthomonas campestris  %' musacearum  similar to thatearlier re%orted in Hganda ushemereirwe et al. , 2663; 2664.he main $anana culti'ars grown in the sur'e! areas were war# >a'endish, Medium >a'endish, Giant>a'endish, Grand, )illiam, ech:<eren* Mus, $esha Mus   and e! Mus. heir status o# %roduction sie wasshowed in <ig. 1. he $anana %roduction %ractices de$udding, desuc&ering and source o# %lantingmaterials and sanitation %ractices management o# in#ected $ananas are shown in <ig. 2. ne %oint #i'e 1.5 %ercent o# the #armers onl! %racticed de$udding $ut not regularl! and not to control $acterial wilt and#usarium wilt. he in#ected $anana stems were #ound standing in the #ield e'en when the! had long died. (omeo# the #armers re%orted that disin#ection o# #arm tools a#ter use in the #ields $ut 95 o# the #armers the! did not&nown the transition o# the diseases. )hen re%lacing the diseased mats, #armers got suc&ers #rom the same#ield or #rom neigh$ors/ and as #ar awa! as the neigh$oring #ield. he #ield o$ser'ation indicated that #irsts!m%toms o# Aacterial wilt   Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum#  are a dull green color o# the laminawhich graduall! it assumes a scalded a%%earance and wilting $ac& on its midri$ late  in #ig4. >rosssections o# diseased %etioles or %seudo stems re'eal !ellowish colorations late A in #ig4. here is une'enand %remature ri%ening o# the #ruit and when #ruit are cut, the sections show uni"ue !ellowish $lotches in the#lesh #ingers and dar& $rown %lacental scars late 3 in #ig4 and !ellowing and gradual dr!ing o# centrallea'es . nd also the same a%%earance o# #usarium wilt <ig 5 A, > and  o$ser'ed and seam to $acterialwilt e-ce%t ooe %roduction instead it %roduces $lac& color in the middle o# %seudo stem resection. (egato&adisease also the ma*or %ro$lems in the stud! areas <ig 5 . i##erent acti'ities o# #armers during land %re%arations and %lantations including #arm #ield %rotections in the stud! areas were showed in <ig J. nd alsodi##erent acti'ities o# #armers during land %re%arations and %lantations including #arm #ield %rotections in thestud! areas $! ercentage in <ig 7.ata recorded in ta$le 1 and <ig 2 showed that the #usarium wilt, (egato&a and $acterial wilt disease were %resent and #usarium wilt and (egato&a were widel! distri$uted in most o# the areas assessed with an in#ection'ar!ing #rom 6 to 75  #or #usarium wilt and 166 #or (egato&a disease, $acterial wilt disease also 'ar!ing#rom 6 to 72.72, causing considera$le damage to the cro%. he ma-imum disease incidence o# 75 and72.72 #or #usarium wilt and $acterial wilt were o$ser'ed in (helle Mela &e$ele and )oe&a &e$ele in r$aMinch 0uri!a woreda res%ecti'el! and 166 o# (egato&a disease o$ser'ed in all o'er the stud! areas. hemoderate disease in#ection o# #usarium wilt and $acterial wilt 1626  and 516 were recorded in somelocations a$le 1. Fanthomonas diseases were recorded as ma*or, although the! are not new #or the areas andare not se'ere at %resent conditions. owe'er, association with %oor drainage water logging %ro$lem andagronomic %ractices the incidence o# <usarium wilt was high (helle Mela and )oe&a &e$eles. igh $acterialwilt incidence o# 72.72 was also o$ser'ed at one #arm:#ield on ech:<eren* Mus )oe&a &e$ele. hesediseases were also con#irmed :identi#ied in the la$oratories testing, sam%les that were collected and $rought tothe r$aMinch and awassa #rom the #ields showing t!%ical s!m%toms . ?ncidence o# #usarium wilt and $acterial wilt were shown in (ille, ola shara, >hano orga and n&o$er, and lgo areas res%ecti'el!, and the $anana cro% in &ola shelle, >hano Mile and Medo &e$eles were remained #ree #rom <usarium wilt andAacterial wilt disease during 2613:2614.Aacterial wilt disease can $e diagnosed #rom the t!%ical s!m%toms it induces on $anana, including %rematureri%ening o# #ruits, internal $rown discolorations o# #ingers and 'ascular tissues, %ale !ellow ooe #rom cutsur#aces, wilting o# $racts and male $uds, and %rogressi'e !ellowing leading to com%lete wilting.  %rominents!m%tom o# anama disease caused $!  Fusarium oxysporum  #. s%. cubense  is wilting, $ut cut sections o# thestem show 'ascular discoloration without an! !ellow $acterial ooe and #ruits are not directl! a##ected.
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