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Assignment1 Hdobbs 145.218

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Develpment in morocco
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   Assignment1 H Dobbs 145.218 Assignment 1145.218 Development and Inequality   15 August 2014   For Sharon ! ennan#y $arley Do%%sA&A'ord!ount( 2000   1   Assignment1 H Dobbs 145.218 Assignment 1 The development of a geographical area is the improving of the lived experiences of individuals andcommunities due to the sustained dedication of both effort and resources by governmental and non-governmental bodies, individuals and communities. This enhancement of human life is carried outin a systematic manner, affecting diverse elements of the world. Economic development is a keytarget of development efforts worldwide. The development of human interaction with theenvironment towards environmental sustainability is another area which the umbrella term'development' covers. easuring the development of society including its !ualitative sub#ectivedimensions, such as the !uality of life experienced by individuals', is crucial in order to understanddevelopment processes. $ne country which is developing well is orocco. The oroccan nationaleconomy is developing rapidly thanks to its applied efforts and adherence to %& plans.dditionally, the oroccan government is also promoting environmental sustainability as part of development. (owever, despite the progressive development, various oroccans struggle tosubside and the public infrastructure is somewhat poor compared to developed nations so it can beconsidered a developing country. %n general, however, current development efforts are ineffective because not all the individuals who are affected by development participate in development planning, meaning that development planning is flawed as it excludes the opinions of those whowill most notice development efforts) those at the grassroots level.Economic development is a target of government and *+$ policies, involving the strengthening of the economy of a physical area. The governmental definition of economic development is usuallyachieving lower unemployment, higher wages, greater property values, increased profits for local businesses. . . and more tax revenues/ 0artik, 1221, p. 13. 4evelopment policies can either function directly or indirectly. 4irect economic development policies are designed specifically to provide #obs 0artik, 1221, p. 53. They aid businesses by alleviating their need to spend byfacilitating, for instance, tax subsidisation and the public funding of personnel training 0artik,1221, p. 63. 7olicies that cause indirect economic development are those which affect individuals'abilities to work thus augmenting economic growth, such as public education 0artik, 1221, p. 63. %nthe third world/, western economies and their development processes are used as models of economic progress 07otter et al, 899:, pp. ;1-83 and often fail due to their unsuitability for their target societies 07otter et al, 899:, pp. ;1-83. 4evelopment policies also fail by focusing on 8   Assignment1 H Dobbs 145.218 developing nation-state economies and transnational corporations 0<oolcock, 122=, p. 1;63.(owever, unlike *+$s and governments, individuals understand economies by experiencing themfirst-hand and collectively are a larger group than the nation-state and corporations. &or thesereasons, the inclusion of individuals in development planning is necessary. >uch a process of inclusion could even be considered as the development of social capital) a collective of individualswho understand what is needed for development to progress due to personal experience and make premeditated decisions about how to develop their communities. The state of the economy is not the only concern of development. >ustainable environmental policies for developing the manner of human interaction with nature/ are as important as thosedirecting economic development, because humanity survives from nature. >o important is this, infact, that the ?io 4eclaration on Environment and 4evelopment states that development must occur to meet the environmental needs of present and future generations/ 0@*, 12283. *evertheless,much economic development is environmentally unsustainable 0Ahambers, 12=B, cover page3. *evertheless, humans dependence on the natural environment continues. %n %ndia, for example,there are rope makers whose livelihoods depend on forests. (owever, having this kind of direct,nature-human relationship at the base of subsistence becomes problematic due to livelihood losswhen the natural environments, such as %ndian forests, are destroyed by the corporate elite who earnmoney from doing so 0Ahambers, 12=B, abstract3. Cogging, for example, is, actually, a ma#or environmental issue involving large-scale corruption among politicians and officials/ 0Ahambers,12=B, p. 63. rguably, in order to ensure ade!uate policy relating to the environment anddevelopment, politicians must ensure that no needless destruction of natural resources in the nameof corporate profit can occur and that nature/ remains as intact as possible in order to meet theenvironmental needs of present and future generations/ 0@*, 12283. gain, involving those whohave direct subsistence relationships with nature/ in development planning could ensure their  protection and continued use of such resources and, thereby, contribute to economic sustainability by protecting natural resources.&urthermore, successful economic development and its relevant environmental policies needmeasuring in order to understand whether they are successful. &or this, social indicators are used,such as levels of crime and economic indices. >ocial indicators are societal measures . . .reflecting peopleDs ob#ective circumstances in a given cultural or geographic unit/ 04iener, 122B, p. 1283. ultiple variables are studied to this end, including the wealth of nation-states 04iener, 6   Assignment1 H Dobbs 145.218 122B, p. 1283. (owever, measuring state wealth is pointless as it ignores individual people's wealth04iener, 122B, p. 1283. oreover, according to 4iener, monetary !uestions are insufficient 0122B, p.1213. (e argues that determining the !uality of individuals' lived experiences is fundamental todevelopment 04iener, 122B, p. 1213. This may be measured via a social indicator called sub#ectivewell-being. >ub#ective well-being is founded on the idea that well-being can be determined fromexperiential life 04iener, 122B, p. 1213. This approach to development measurement differs fromsocial indicators such as health and education as it focuses on the development of contentednesswhich is sub#ective. &or example, one may consider they experience a good life because they adhereto either philosophical systems or because they feel well in general, 04iener, 122B, p. 1=23 and thesefeelings could exist regardless of monetary standing. This concept confirms the validity of 4ienersassertion 0122B, p. 1213 that economic !uestions are not the only !uestions necessary to guidedevelopment. <holly, the development of experiential reality goes is united with that of economicand environmental policies and these must, therefore, be measured together to steer developmentaptly.orocco is developing well according to economic indices. The %& consider orocco a successdue to %& planning 0&riedman, 8919, p. :3 involving the devaluing of the national currency andoroccan export proliferation 0&riedman, 8919, p. 8=3. Exportation, moreover, was encouraged bythe 1295 ct of lgeciras 0&riedman, 8919, p. 823 which permitted orocco to form tradingrelationships with commercial e!uality 0&riedman, 8919, p. 823. (owever, development between1295 and today was not linear. etween 12B6 and 12BB, ing (assan %% tried to centraliFe wealtharound him by taking direct ownership of . . . industries, such as dairy companies/ 0&riedman, 8919, p. 663 and re!uired corporations to be at least ;1G oroccan owned 0&riedman, 8919, p. 6:3. (isfollowing, 12B2 to 12=6, economic policies increased public investment in all economic areas/ andimpoverished the government 0&riedman, 8919, p. 6:3. This decade of poor government causedexternal debt to rise from HB99 to H19.;. >ince 12=6, however, the state has opened theeconomy to international penetration 0&riedman, 8919, p. 6;3. s already mentioned, oroccoincreased exports and devalued its currency and, conse!uently, the economy grew 0&riedman, 8919, p. 6;3. %n addition to the elimination of agricultural subsidies 0&riedman, 8919, p. 653, these processes permitted the nation to reduce its budget deficit from 18G to I8G in 19 years 0&riedman,8919, p. 6B3. (owever, immediately following currency devaluation in 12=6 . . . consumer prices/rose to J69G, resulting in civil unrest that caused hundreds of death 0&riedman, 8919, p. 653.Therefore, this compromising of individuals experiential reality compromised development, :
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