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  Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic OvarySyndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical PracticeGuideline Richard S. Legro, Silva A. Arslanian, David A. Ehrmann, Kathleen M. Hoeger,M. Hassan Murad, Renato Pasquali, and Corrine K. Welt The Penn State University College of Medicine (R.S.L.), Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033; Children’s Hospitalof Pittsburgh (S.A.A.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224;University of Chicago (D.A.E.), Chicago, Illinois 60637; University of Rochester Medical Center (K.M.H.),Rochester, New York 14627; Mayo Clinic (M.H.M.), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; Orsola-MalpighiHospital, University Alma Mater Studiorum, (R.P.), 40126 Bologna, Italy; and Massachusetts GeneralHospital (C.K.W.), Boston, Massachusetts 02114 Objective:  The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Participants:  An Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a med-ical writer developed the guideline. Evidence:  This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations,Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of rec-ommendations and the quality of evidence. Consensus Process:  One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communicationsenabledconsensus.CommitteesandmembersofTheEndocrineSocietyandtheEuropeanSocietyof Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Two sys-tematic reviews were conducted to summarize supporting evidence. Conclusions: WesuggestusingtheRotterdamcriteriafordiagnosingPCOS(presenceoftwoofthefollowing criteria: androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, or polycystic ovaries). Establishing adiagnosis of PCOS is problematic in adolescents and menopausal women. Hyperandrogenism iscentraltothepresentationinadolescents,whereasthereisnoconsistentphenotypeinpostmeno-pausal women. Evaluation of women with PCOS should exclude alternate androgen-excess disor-dersandriskfactorsforendometrialcancer,mooddisorders,obstructivesleepapnea,diabetes,andcardiovascular disease. Hormonal contraceptives are the first-line management for menstrual ab-normalitiesandhirsutism/acneinPCOS.Clomipheneiscurrentlythefirst-linetherapyforinfertility;metformin is beneficial for metabolic/glycemic abnormalities and for improving menstrual irreg-ularities, but it has limited or no benefit in treating hirsutism, acne, or infertility. Hormonal con-traceptivesandmetforminarethetreatmentoptionsinadolescentswithPCOS.Theroleofweightloss in improving PCOS status per se is uncertain, but lifestyle intervention is beneficial in over-weight/obese patients for other health benefits. Thiazolidinediones have an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio overall, and statins require further study.  (  J Clin Endocrinol Metab  98: 4565–4592,2013) ISSN Print 0021-972X ISSN Online 1945-7197Printed in U.S.A.Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine SocietyReceived May 24, 2013. Accepted September 26, 2013.First Published Online November 20, 2013Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; DM, diabetes mellitus; HC,hormonal contraceptive; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HgbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; IGT,impairedglucosetolerance;IR,insulinresistance;IVF,invitrofertilization;LDL,low-densitylipoprotein; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis;OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; 17-OHP, 17-hydroxyprogesterone; OHSS, ovarianhyperstimulation syndrome; OR, odds ratio; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; PCO, poly-cysticovary(orovaries);PCOS,polycysticovarysyndrome;RR,relativerisk;T2DM,type2 DM. S P E C I A L F E A T U R EC l i n i c a l P r a c t i c e G u i d e l i n e doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2350 J Clin Endocrinol Metab, December 2013, 98(12):4565–4592  4565 Downloaded from gueston 15 October 2017  Summary of Recommendations 1.0 Diagnosis of PCOS Diagnosis in adults 1.1 We suggest that the diagnosis of polycystic ovarysyndrome (PCOS) be made if two of the three followingcriteria are met: androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction,or polycystic ovaries (PCO) (Tables 1 and 2), whereasdisorders that mimic the clinical features of PCOS are ex-cluded. These include, in all women: thyroid disease, hy-perprolactinemia, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hy-perplasia (primarily 21-hydroxylase deficiency by serum17-hydroxyprogesterone [17-OHP]) (Table 3). In selectwomenwithamenorrheaandmoreseverephenotypes,wesuggest more extensive evaluation excluding other causes(Table 4) (2  QQQE ). Diagnosis in adolescents 1.2 We suggest that the diagnosis of PCOS in an ado-lescent girl be made based on the presence of clinicaland/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism (afterexclusion of other pathologies) in the presence of persis-tent oligomenorrhea. Anovulatory symptoms and PCOmorphology are not sufficient to make a diagnosis in ad-olescents, as they may be evident in normal stages in re-productive maturation (2  QQEE ). Diagnosis in perimenopause and menopause 1.3 Although there are currently no diagnostic criteriaforPCOSinperimenopausalandmenopausalwomen,wesuggestthatapresumptivediagnosisofPCOScanbebasedupon a well-documented long-term history of oligomen-orrhea and hyperandrogenism during the reproductiveyears. The presence of PCO morphology on ultrasoundwould provide additional supportive evidence, althoughthis is less likely in a menopausal woman (2  QQEE ). 2.0 Associated morbidity and evaluation Cutaneous manifestations 2.1Werecommendthataphysicalexaminationshoulddocument cutaneous manifestations of PCOS: terminalhair growth (see hirsutism guidelines, Ref. 1), acne, alo-pecia, acanthosis nigricans, and skin tags (1  QQQE ). Infertility  2.2 Women with PCOS are at increased risk of anovu-lation and infertility; in the absence of anovulation, therisk of infertility is uncertain. We recommend screeningovulatory status using menstrual history in all womenwithPCOSseekingfertility.SomewomenwithPCOSandaeumenorrheicmenstrualhistorymaystillexperiencean-ovulation and a midluteal serum progesterone may behelpful as an additional screening test (1  QQEE ).2.3 We recommend excluding other causes of infertil-ity, beyond anovulation, in couples where a woman hasPCOS (1  QQEE ). Pregnancy complications 2.4BecausewomenwithPCOSareatincreasedriskof pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes, preterm Table 1.  Summary of Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for PCOS in Adults Category Specific Abnormality Recommended Test NIHRotterdam(2 of 3Met)Androgen ExcessPCOS Society(Hyper-AndrogenismWith 1 of 2Remaining Criteria) Androgen status Clinical hyperandrogenism a Clinical hyperandrogenism may include hirsutism (definedas excessive terminal hair that appears in a malepattern) (1, 295), acne, or androgenic alopecia.XXorXorXXorBiochemicalhyperandrogenism a Biochemical hyperandrogenism refers to an elevatedserum androgen level and typically includes anelevated total, bioavailable, or free serum T level.Given variability in T levels and the poorstandardization of assays (31), it is difficult to definean absolute level that is diagnostic of PCOS or othercauses of hyperandrogenism, and the Task Forcerecommends familiarity with local assays.XX X XXMenstrual history Oligo- or anovulation Anovulation may manifest as frequent bleeding atintervals  21 d or infrequent bleeding at intervals  35 d. Occasionally, bleeding may be anovulatorydespite falling at a normal interval (25–35 d). Amidluteal progesterone documenting anovulation mayhelp with the diagnosis if bleeding intervals appear tosuggest regular ovulation.XX X XOvarianappearanceOvarian size/morphologyon ultrasoundThe PCO morphology has been defined by the presenceof 12 or more follicles 2–9 mm in diameter and/or anincreased ovarian volume  10 mL (without a cyst ordominant follicle) in either ovary (78).X X The Task Force suggests using the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS, acknowledging the limitations of each of the three criteria (Table2). All criteria require exclusion of other diagnoses (listed in Table 3) that cause the same symptoms and/or signs (6–9). X, may be present fordiagnosis; XX, must be present for diagnosis. a Clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism is included as one criterion in all classification systems. If clinical hyperandrogenism is present with theabsence of virilization, then serum androgens are not necessary for the diagnosis. Similarly, when a patient has signs of hyperandrogenism andovulatory dysfunction, an ovarian ultrasound is not necessary. 4566  Legro et al Guidelines on PCOS J Clin Endocrinol Metab, December 2013, 98(12):4565–4592 Downloaded from gueston 15 October 2017  delivery, and pre-eclampsia) exacerbated by obesity, werecommendpreconceptualassessmentofbodymassindex(BMI), blood pressure, and oral glucose tolerance(1  QQQE ). Fetal srcins 2.5 The evidence for intrauterine effects on develop-ment of PCOS is inconclusive. We suggest no specific in-terventionsforpreventionofPCOSinoffspringofwomenwith PCOS (2  QEEE ). Endometrial cancer  2.6 Women with PCOS share many of the risk factorsassociated with the development of endometrial cancerincluding obesity, hyperinsulinism, diabetes, and abnor-maluterinebleeding.However,wesuggestagainstroutineultrasoundscreeningforendometrialthicknessinwomenwith PCOS (2  QQQE ). Obesity  2.7 Increased adiposity, particularly abdominal, is as-sociated with hyperandrogenemia and increased meta-bolic risk (see cardiovascular disease prevention guide-lines, Ref. 2). Therefore, we recommend screeningadolescents and women with PCOS for increased adipos-ity,byBMIcalculationandmeasurementofwaistcircum-ference (1  QQQE ). Depression 2.8WesuggestscreeningwomenandadolescentswithPCOS for depression and anxiety by history and, if iden-tified, providing appropriate referral and/or treatment(2  QQEE ). Sleep-disordered breathing/obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) 2.9Wesuggestscreeningoverweight/obeseadolescentsand women with PCOS for symptoms suggestive of OSAand, when identified, obtaining a definitive diagnosis us-ing polysomnography. If OSA is diagnosed, patientsshouldbereferredforinstitutionofappropriatetreatment(2  QQEE ). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) 2.10WesuggestawarenessofthepossibilityofNAFLDand NASH but recommend against routine screening(2  QQEE ). Table 2.  Diagnostic Strengths and Weaknesses of the Main Features of PCOS as Adapted from the NIHEvidence-Based Methodology Workshop on PCOS DiagnosticCriteria Strength Limitation Hyperandrogenism Included as a component in all major classifications Measurement is performed only in bloodA major clinical concern for patients Concentrations differ during time of dayAnimal models employing androgen excessresembling but not fully mimicking humandiseaseConcentrations differ with ageNormative data are not clearly definedAssays are not standardized across laboratoriesClinical hyperandrogenism is difficult to quantify and may vary by ethnicgroup, eg, low rates of hirsutism in women with PCOS from east AsiaTissue sensitivity is not assessedOvulatorydysfunctionIncluded as a component in all major classifications Normal ovulation is poorly definedA major clinical concern for patients Normal ovulation varies over a woman’s lifetimeInfertility a common clinical complaint Ovulatory dysfunction is difficult to measure objectivelyAnovulatory cycles may have bleeding patterns that are interpreted as normalPCO morphology Historically associated with syndrome Technique dependentMay be associated with hypersensitivity to ovarianstimulationDifficult to obtain standardized measurementLack of normative standards across the menstrual cycle and lifespan (notablyin adolescence)May be present in other disorders that mimic PCOSTechnology required to accurately image not universally availableTransvaginal imaging possibly inappropriate in certain circumstances (eg,adolescence) or certain cultures Table 3.  Other Diagnoses to Exclude in All Women Before Making a Diagnosis of PCOS Disorder Test Abnormal ValuesReference for FurtherEvaluation and Treatment ofAbnormal Findings; FirstAuthor, Year (Ref.) Thyroid disease Serum TSH TSH  the upper limit of normal suggestshypothyroidism; TSH  the lower limit, usually  0.1 mIU/L, suggests hyperthyroidismLadenson, 2000 (10)Prolactin excess Serum prolactin   Upper limit of normal for the assay Melmed, 2011 (11)Nonclassical congenitaladrenal hyperplasiaEarly morning(before 8  AM )serum 17-OHP200–400 ng/dL depending on the assay (applicableto the early follicular phase of a normalmenstrual cycle as levels rise with ovulation), buta cosyntropin stimulation test (250   g) isneeded if levels fall near the lower limit andshould stimulate 17-OHP  1000 ng/dLSpeiser, 2010 (12) doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2350  4567 Downloaded from gueston 15 October 2017  Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 2.11 We recommend the use of an oral glucose toler-ance test (OGTT) (consisting of a fasting and 2-hour glu-cose level using a 75-g oral glucose load) to screen forimpaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2DM in adoles-cents and adult women with PCOS because they are athighriskforsuchabnormalities(1  QQQE ).AhemoglobinA1c(HgbA1c)testmaybeconsideredifapatientisunableor unwilling to complete an OGTT (2  QQEE ). Rescreen-ing is suggested every 3–5 years, or more frequently if clinical factors such as central adiposity, substantialweight gain, and/or symptoms of diabetes develop(2  QQEE ). Cardiovascular risk  2.12WerecommendthatadolescentsandwomenwithPCOSbescreenedforthefollowingcardiovasculardiseaserisk factors (Table 5): family history of early cardiovas-cular disease, cigarette smoking, IGT/T2DM, hyperten-sion,dyslipidemia,OSA,andobesity(especiallyincreasedabdominal adiposity) (1  QQEE ). 3.0 Treatment Hormonal contraceptives (HCs): indications and  screening 3.1WerecommendHCs(ie,oralcontraceptives,patch,orvaginalring)asfirst-linemanagementforthemenstrualabnormalities and hirsutism/acne of PCOS (refer to hir-sutismguidelinesinRef.1,recommendation2.1.1),whichtreat these two problems concurrently (1  QQEE ).3.2 We recommend screening for contraindications toHC use via established criteria (see Table 6 and Ref. 3)(1  QQQE ).ForwomenwithPCOS,wedonotsuggestoneHC formulation over another (2  QQEE ). Role of exercise in lifestyle therapy  3.3 We suggest the use of exercise therapy in the man-agement of overweight and obesity in PCOS (2  QQEE ). Table 4.  Diagnoses to Consider Excluding in Select Women, Depending on Presentation Other Diagnoses a Suggestive Features in the Presentation Tests to Assist in the DiagnosisReference for FurtherEvaluation and Treatment ofAbnormal Findings; FirstAuthor, Year (Ref.) Pregnancy Amenorrhea (as opposed to oligomenorrhea), other signs and symptoms ofpregnancy including breast fullness, uterine cramping, etcSerum or urine hCG (positive) Morse, 2011 (17)HA includingfunctional HAAmenorrhea, clinical history of low body weight/BMI, excessive exercise,and a physical exam in which signs of androgen excess are lacking;multifollicular ovaries are sometimes presentSerum LH and FSH (both low to lownormal), serum estradiol (low)Wang, 2008 (18)Primary ovarianinsufficiencyAmenorrhea combined with symptoms of estrogen deficiency including hotflashes and urogenital symptomsSerum FSH (elevated), serumestradiol (low)Nelson, 2009 (296)Androgen-secretingtumorVirilization including change in voice, male pattern androgenic alopecia,and clitoromegaly; rapid onset of symptomsSerum T and DHEAS levels (markedlyelevated), ultrasound imaging ofovaries, MRI of adrenal glands(mass or tumor present)Carmina, 2006 (16)Cushing’ssyndromeMany of the signs and symptoms of PCOS can overlap with Cushing’s (ie,striae, obesity, dorsocervical fat (ie, buffalo hump, glucose intolerance);however, Cushing’s is more likely to be present when a large number ofsigns and symptoms, especially those with high discriminatory index (eg,myopathy, plethora, violaceous striae, easy bruising) are present, andthis presentation should lead to screening24-h urinary collection for urinaryfree cortisol (elevated), late nightsalivary cortisol (elevated),overnight dexamethasonesuppression test (failure tosuppress morning serum cortisollevel)Nieman, 2008 (19)Acromegaly Oligomenorrhea and skin changes (thickening, tags, hirsutism,hyperhidrosis) may overlap with PCOS. However, headaches, peripheralvision loss, enlarged jaw (macrognathia), frontal bossing, macroglossia,increased shoe and glove size, etc, are indications for screeningSerum free IGF-1 level (elevated),MRI of pituitary (mass or tumorpresent)Melmed, 2009 (20) Abbreviations: DHEAS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; HA, hypothalamic amenorrhea; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; MRI, magneticresonance imaging. a Additionally there are very rare causes of hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation that are not included in this table because they are so rare, butthey must be considered in patients with an appropriate history. These include other forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (eg, 11  -hydroxylasedeficiency, 3  -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), related congenital disorders of adrenal steroid metabolism or action (eg, apparent/cortisonereductase deficiency, apparent DHEA sulfotransferase deficiency, glucocorticoid resistance), virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenal rests,poor control, fetal programming), syndromes of extreme IR, drugs, portohepatic shunting, and disorders of sex development. Table 5.  Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Womenwith PCOS At risk—PCOS women with any of the following risk factors:Obesity (especially increased abdominal adiposity)Cigarette smokingHypertensionDyslipidemia (increased LDL-cholesterol and/or non-HDL-cholesterol)Subclinical vascular diseaseImpaired glucose toleranceFamily history of premature cardiovascular disease (  55 y ofage in male relative;  65 y of age in female relative)At high risk–PCOS women with:Metabolic syndromeT2DMOvert vascular or renal disease, cardiovascular diseasesOSA The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society reliedupon evidence-based studies and concluded that women with PCOSbe stratified as being either at risk or at high risk for cardiovasculardisease using the criteria shown (167). 4568  Legro et al Guidelines on PCOS J Clin Endocrinol Metab, December 2013, 98(12):4565–4592 Downloaded from gueston 15 October 2017
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