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  Leadership & Organization Development Journal Awakened leaders: born or made? Joan F. Marques  Article information: To cite this document:Joan F. Marques, (2010), Awakened leaders: born or made? , Leadership & Organization DevelopmentJournal, Vol. 31 Iss 4 pp. 307 - 323 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437731011043339 Downloaded on: 13 October 2014, At: 01:00 (PT)References: this document contains references to 49 other documents.To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.comThe fulltext of this document has been downloaded 5699 times since 2010* Users who downloaded this article also downloaded: Joan Marques, (2008), Awakened leadership in action: a comparison of three exceptional businessleaders , Journal of Management Development, Vol. 27 Iss 8 pp. 812-823Richard J. Leider, (2008), The leader in midlife , Business Strategy Series, Vol. 9 Iss 3 pp. 115-118Joan F. Marques, (2010), Awakened leaders: who are they and why do we need them? , Development andLearning in Organizations: An International Journal, Vol. 24 Iss 2 pp. 7-10 Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by 394654 [] For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald forAuthors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelinesare available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.  About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The companymanages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well asproviding an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committeeon Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archivepreservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   T   I   U   T   A   R   A   M   A   L   A   Y   S   I   A   A   t   0   1  :   0   0   1   3   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  Awakenedleaders:bornormade?  Joan F. Marques Woodbury University, Burbank, California, USA Abstract Purpose  – This paper aims to review the leader of the twenty-first century, the Awakened Leader.Based on information, collected from 11 leadership thinkers and practitioners, literature review, andthe author’s workplace observations, the article seeks to analyze some of the important experiencesand skills that make awakened leaders so outstanding. Design/methodology/approach  – This study was conducted as a qualitative study of thephenomenological kind, enriched with literature review. Interviews were executed from apre-validated interview protocol. The approach to the topic is: definition of awakened leadership;review of the essence of awakened leadership; reasoning of the determination regarding this leaderbeing born or made; and perspectives toward awakened leadership. Findings  – An interesting combination of qualities emerged for awakened leaders varying frommorals and values, ethics, integrity, honesty and trust, to kindness, forgiveness, courage, love, anddeep listening. As an interesting endnote the article explains why practicing awakened leadership iseasy and difficult at the same time. Research limitations/implications  – The studies reviewed, although in-depth, applied to a smallsample of leaders, which makes generalization riskier. Because leadership is such a broad anddynamic topic, literature review is never exhausted, and thus always relatively outdated. Practical implications  – Leaders may reconsider the skills required for themselves and theirworkforce to guarantee successful performance in an increasingly interconnected world. Leaders mayengage in reflection and work toward stronger emphasis and development of skills in which theyconsider themselves weak. Leaders may reexamine their work environment and consider how tominimize the factors that complicate the practice of awakened leadership in their organization. Originality/value  – The phenomenon of awakened leadership as an all-encompassing andmulti-applicable leadership trend is shown in the paper. Keywords  Ethics, Social values, Trust, Job satisfaction, Leadership, Justice Paper type  Case study Introduction The phenomenon leadership has been extensively studied in past decades. A brief review of leadership styles developed throughout the years leads us to the followingincomplete results: resonant leadership (Boyatzis and McKee, 2005; Drath, 2006);servant leadership (Greenleaf and Spears, 1977; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003); self leadership (Manz, 1983; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003);  laissez faire  leadership (Knightand Emmett, 1999; Frittz, 2005; Canty, 2006; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003); authenticleadership (George, 2003); authoritative leadership (Fullan, 2003); coercive leadership(Pierce and Newstrom, 2003; Hughes  et al. , 2002); charismatic leadership (Northouse,2000; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003; Hughes  et al. , 2002); team leadership (Northouse,2000; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003; Hughes  et al. , 2002); crisis leadership (Mitroff, 2001and 2005); transformational leadership (Northouse, 2000; Pierce and Newstrom, 2003;Hughes  et al. , 2002); and transactional leadership (Northouse, 2000; Pierce andNewstrom, 2003; Hughes  et al. , 2002). The reason why the above results are labeled“incomplete” is, because leadership is a highly dynamic and continuously evolving The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0143-7739.htm Awakenedleaders:born or made? 307 Received January 2009Revised May 2009Accepted July 2009 Leadership & OrganizationDevelopment JournalVol. 31 No. 4, 2010pp. 307-323 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited0143-7739DOI 10.1108/01437731011043339    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   T   I   U   T   A   R   A   M   A   L   A   Y   S   I   A   A   t   0   1  :   0   0   1   3   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  topic, which entails that new definitions and styles of leadership are continuouslydeveloped.When applying a closer analysis, it becomes apparent that the common factormissing in most of these theories is multi-applicability, which means that the majorityof these leadership styles are limited to either one type of leader, or one type of follower,or one type of situation. While highly useful in particular settings, many of theseleadership styles are inapplicable in settings that deviate from the one they weredeveloped for. Yet, multi-applicability is increasingly becoming a requirement in thecontinuously intertwining global village that is our world. Along with the concept of multi-applicability arises the need for a meta-leadership style, which means, aleadership style that is applicable under a broad variety of situations and with a broadvariety of followers, thus, highly flexible.Setting out a search for a meta-leadership, and thus multi-applicable leadershipstyle, the author of this paper conducted a series of interviews with eleven leadershippractitioners and thinkers. Through these interviews, along with a significant portionof literature review and workplace observations, the “awakened leader” emerged. Thispaper will briefly introduce the awakened leader, analyze some of the importantexperiences and skills that make this type of leader so outstanding, and will concludewith a brief reasoning why this leadership style is easy and difficult at the same time. Awakened leaders: who are they? Before getting into some details of the findings, it may be interesting to start with somegeneral conclusions and then work our way back to how these conclusions came about.The name that was ultimately chosen for the leader to be described in this paper was,“The awakened leader.” This name was derived from Buddha’s (approximately563  BCE  ) post-enlightenment answer to the question of a passer-by whether he was agod, a magician, a wizard, or anything else, upon which Buddha simply stated, “I’mawake” (Kornfield, 1999).Awakened leaders, as the participants to this study agreed upon, are those who leadfrom the heart and soul. They are the corporate, community, and household leaders,official or unofficial, who refuse to put on different hats when it comes to theirpersonality. They don’t believe in parking their souls at the door (Rosner, 2001).Awakened leaders practice a holistic and authentic approach in every environment andat every time. Why is awakened leadership important? The urge to inquire about a different type of leader emerged from the current trend of globalization, and with that, increased exposure of human beings from all walks of lifeto different ways of acting, thinking, and interacting. It is common knowledge that theinternet, as a mass communication and meta-applicable source, has made our worldmore interdependent than it ever was. Patki and Patki (2007) concur with theseperspectives in their assertion, “Internet technology has impelled us to develop faith inthe modern practices of business, commerce, and trade. Offshoring has been viewed asa global phenomenon on the economic frontier” (p. 57). Cultures are now accessible to afar greater extent, and communication between people from different continentshappens on a continuous and massive basis. It is no news that organizations, andtherefore their workforces, are increasingly diverging their operations over the globe, LODJ31,4 308    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   T   I   U   T   A   R   A   M   A   L   A   Y   S   I   A   A   t   0   1  :   0   0   1   3   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  for purposes of efficiency and effectiveness, in order to remain a player in theiroftentimes hyper-competitive field of expertise. Collins underscores the above in hisstatement, “Large organizations are trying to make innovation a pervasive part of theirculture in a move reminiscent of the introduction of quality management in the 1980s”(p. 5). Collins (2007) continues, “They want to make innovation a part of theiremployees’ day-to-day lives, and find ways to take advantage of their customers’ andpartners’ ideas as well” (p. 5). Collins concludes, “Part of the reason for this is pressuressuch as globalization and the shifting role of the consumer enabled by the Internet”(p. 5).Indeed, how easy has it become, thanks to the Net, to have parts of a job prepared inthe west, then continued by eastern colleagues located several continents away whilethe westerners sleep, and ultimately finalized again in the west when the new workdaystarts there? That’s efficiency, effectiveness, and thus competitiveness, to the max, justlike Collins, Patki and Patki, and many other authors have confirmed.Yet, efficiency and effectiveness only go so far without leadership that facilitatesand embraces an environment of acceptance, willingness to understand, and mutualrespect. This is where the need for awakened leadership emerges. “Leaderaccountability has been hailed as both a proactive step in building and sustaining aclimate of trust and credible leadership and as a remedial step in restoring trust andcredibility once lost by the leader” (Wood and Winston, 2005, p. 84). Contemporaryleaders at any level and in any type of setting, but particularly those at the helm of organizations that operate in various continents, have to develop sensitivity towardand insight into possible misunderstandings and subsequent conflicts that can ariseamong workers from various cultures, and thus, with various work ethics. Born and made “The changing face of organizations, an increasingly competitive and globalized worldeconomy, and rapid changes in demographic trends are posing great challenges tomanagement” (Ayoko and Ha¨rtel, 2006, p. 345). Due to these massive changes and theconsequential high demands of today’s increasingly diversifying workforce, the needfor diversity leaders has tremendously augmented. “Diversity leadership refers toanyone that leads or manages a diverse or heterogeneous workgroup” (Ayoko andHa¨rtel, 2006, p. 345).When taking note of the above-posted demands on contemporary leaders, the imageof an awakened leader emerges. In their answers to the questions presented to them,the participants to the study discussed in this paper indicated that an awakened leaderis a diversity-oriented and experienced one. Because the factor experience plays suchan immense role in the descriptions provided by the subjects in this study, theyconcluded that an awakened leader is one that was born as all humans do, but made tobecome an awakened leader. Made by life and made by the experiences he or sheobtained while growing up. Although, according to the interviewees, this leader mayhave been born with certain skills that enhanced his or her chances and marked his orher initial aspirations toward becoming a leader, the wakefulness within the leader wasderived through trial and error.In many professional environments the phenomenon trial and error is taboo,because it indicates a waste of time, money, energy, and prestige. However, theparticipants to the leadership study conducted agreed that the making of an awakened Awakenedleaders:born or made? 309    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   T   I   U   T   A   R   A   M   A   L   A   Y   S   I   A   A   t   0   1  :   0   0   1   3   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )

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Jul 22, 2017
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