case study about backpackers
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    FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS & ACCOUNTING UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH TOURIST BEHAVIOUR (BY 30603) Tutorial Presentation BACKPACKERS Prepared to: Dr. Balvinder Kaur Kler Submitted Date: 06/11/2014 NAME MATRICS NUM.  ASWENI KRISHNAN BB12110043 SAHRILIZIA BINTI SERIE BB12110512 CHANG XIN YI BB 12160675 GUO KEHONG BB12110643 OUYANG JIESHU BB12170754  DEFINITION OF BACKPACKERS  According to Cohen (1972) , the studies generally defines backpackers as self-organized pleasure tourists on a prolonged multiple-destination journey with a flexible itinerary. They are often keen to experiences the local lifestyle, attempt to „look local‟, and cite „meeting other people‟ as a key motivation. Their recreational activities are likely to focus around nature, culture, or adventure. They also described as people who search for authentic experiences, a search based on exclusion of other tourists. However, according to Nash et al, defining who a backpacker actually is should be considered as a challenging task. Backpackers are not easily distinguished economically or demographically and might be best described in social terms (Pearce, 1990). To identify a backpacker (Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995), aged frequently between 20 and 24, but can range from 15 to 60 years of age, are preference for low cost accommodation option, emphasis on meeting others travelers and having memorable experiences, flexible and independently arranged travel plans, longer rather than brief vacations and preference for informal and participatory recreational activities. Using the WTO classification of tourists by purpose of travel, backpackers are in the group designated 'holiday makers' (Gamham, 1993:541). The term backpacker is also representative of traveller styles where 'the emphasis is on movement and mobility'(Doorne, 1994:30).   Pearce (1990) defines a backpacker in the five following ways :-   1. A preference for budget accommodation 2. An emphasis on meeting other travelers 3. An independently organized and flexible travel schedule 4. Longer rather than shorter holidays 5. An emphasis on informal and participatory holidays Philip Pearce1 argues that traditionally backpacker accommodation was primarily dormitory style with communal self catering facilities and social areas but in recent years the quality and services of establishments has improved dramatically. It is now not unusual for some newer establishments to include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms and offer free breakfast, air conditioning, pool and linen. For travelers, the main benefits of backpacker accommodation include are the low  price of the accommodation compared to alternatives such as hotels and bed and breakfasts, enough common areas such as kitchens, sitting rooms, pool rooms and bars. It will encourage more interaction between guests than in traditional hotels. Besides that, hostels are less formal than hotels because most hostels have a library of travel guides for guests to use to plan out their journey and often provide DVD libraries and book swap systems. In addition, hostel staffs are genuinely there to help, provide free, independent advice on the best places to eat and drink, travel options and so on. Lastly, many hostels provide activities for their guests for a nominal charge or no charge at all Besides that, there is an emerging new backpacker market known as the Flash packer that could be described as the affluent backpacker. They share many of the characteristics of backpackers but are associated with greater disposable income and tend to mix low cost and luxury travel, still travelling independently, but with greater comfort. They also tend to travel with gadgets such as laptops, music/video players, digital cameras, mobile phones or GPS devices. Backpacking is a state of mind. In “The Backpacking Phenomenon”, Philip Pearce1 suggests that backpacking is an approach to travelling and holiday taking, rather than a categorization based on age or dollars spent. Pearce developed the following criteria for distinguishing backpackers from other travelers a preference for budget accommodation, an emphasis on meeting with locals and other travelers, an independently organized and flexible travel schedule and longer rather than brief holidays. Backpackers are generally characterized by their independent style and extensive range of travel, coupled with their ability to extend their length of stay through prudent budgeting. In addition, Welk also argues that the backpacker community is not a real subculture, but it does take on some of the characteristics of one constrained by a constant assimilative pressure by mainstream tourism. Backpackers on the road are temporary members of the „road culture‟. The social interactions (Murphy, 2001) between backpackers revolve around the shared ideology, but are constrained to just the time spent while travelling. Welk (2003) proposed that the backpacker community has evolved around a set of stable common symbolic lines of ideology. Five pillars of backpacker ideology included, travel on a low budget, to meet different people, to be  free, independent and open-minded, to organize ones journey individually and independently, and to travel as long as possible. On the others hand, Anderskov (2002) concluded that the backpacker culture is hierarchically structured, with individual status connected to the values of freedom, independence, tolerance, low budget, interaction with locals, and the exchange of the most valuable object in the culture, information. While the ideology of the backpacker market is represented in the value system, there is a noticeable gap between the structure and the actual practice by backpackers. Lastly, Hecht and Martin (2006) identify three type of backpacker, according to traveler‟s age group, as follows: the youth tourist backpacker are between 15 and 26 years old, for transition backpackers, the age are between 26 to 29 years old and the contemporary tourism backpacker are 30 years old and older. THE HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF BACKPACKER TRAVEL  There are a number of independent themes that contribute to an understanding of the history of the backpacker phenomenon. Although people have always travelled, the srcins of backpacker travel lies within the broader history of tourism. This includes the Grand Tours of the 17th and 18th century in Europe, hiking, the youth hostel movement and non-institutionalized tourism. BACKPACKERS CULTURE Every year hundreds of thousands young people go travelling in the backpacker manner. They call themselves backpackers and undertake long-term journeys on low budgets to especially Third World countries. It has become the done thing. Surely not for everybody, but for an expanding number of well educated, young people from Europe, North America, Israel, Australia and New Zealand. Backpacking is a culture symbolic of the increasingly mobile world. With cultural roots growing from the beatnik and hippie co unterculture‟s of the 1950s -1970s, backpacking has been a mainstreaming phenomenon in tourism that has evolved and adapted to technological, social, political and economic trends in both the home and
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