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    George Bacovia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia George Bacovia Alley of Classics, Chişinău   Born September 17, 1881 Bacău , Romania  Died May 22, 1957 (aged 75) Bucharest, Romania  Occupation Poet Literary movement Symbolism George Bacovia  ( Romanian pronunciation:    or  ovi ; the pen   name of George Vasiliu ; September 17 [O.S. September 4]  1881  – May 22, 1957) was a Romanian symbolist poet. While he initially belonged to the local Symbolist   movement, his poetry came to be seen as a precursor of Romanian Modernism and eventually established him in critical esteem alongside Tudor Arghezi, Lucian   Blaga and Ion Barbu as one of the most important interwar Romanian poets.   Contents [hide]     1 Biography  o   1.1 Childhood  o   1.2 Studies   o   1.3 Between the wars  o   1.4 After the war      2 Critical reception     3 Selected critical bibliography     4 Further reading     5 External links  Biography  [edit]   Childhood [edit]   Bacovia was born George Andone Vasiliu  in  Bcău , the son of a merchant, Dimitri Vsiliu, n his wif Zo Zoiţ Vsiliu (orn Lng) At only six yrs of age he began his study of  German. Between 1889 and 1890 he started his schooling t n cmy in Bcău, for rgistring in 1891 t th Domnscă Primary School in the same city. In June 1893, he finished his primary schooling and ftrwr gn stuis t th Gimnziul Frinn, lso in Bcău On utumn night, an oversight by the sexton led to his being locked overnight in the tower of the Precista church, an experience which would later inspire his first major poem, 1899's  Amurg violet   ( Purple Twilight  ). He exhibited a talent for drawing and developed into an excellent violinist in the school orchestra, which he directed. He also distinguished himself in gymnastics. In 1899, he received the national first prize in the contest Tinerimii române for artistic drawings of nature. His poem Şi toate  - written a year earlier under the name of V. George - was published in the magazine  Literatorul   on 30 March, launching his literary career. Studies [edit]     In 1900, Bacovia matriculated at the Military Academy in  Işi , but dropped out during   his second semester, unable to bear military discipline. In 1901 he began studies at th Licul Frinn in Bcău, from which h grut in 1903 H wrot th poem Liceu  ( High School  ) in response to a Ministry of Education questionnaire sent to graduates in the course of  Spiru Haret's educational reforms. He matriculated at   the Faculty of Law in Bucharest and soon became a fixture in the city's literary life; an early reading of his poem Plumb  ( Lead  ) at  Alexandru Macedonski's salon produced a powerful impression. He continued reading his poems at Macedonski's salon, and in 1904 his Nervi de toamnă  (  Autumn nerves ) obtained the same success. Helped by his growing reputation, he gained a position at the review   Art  l Işi  and was able to stop his   law studies. After two years in Bucharest with his brother Eugen, he returned to Bcău for mtriculting t th Univrsity of Işi's Fculty of Lw; despite his previous studies in Bucharest, he started as a first-year student. Until 1909 he rmin in Işi, ssisting IM Rscu with his rviw   Versuri  , later Versuri şi proză . Btwn 1909 n 1910 h cm to Işi for xmintions ut liv in Bcău; on otining his lw gr in 1911, h qulifi for th r in Bcău, ut spit paying dues for ten years, never practiced law. Instead, he spent his time working with Constantin Al. Ionescu-Caion on the Românul Literar  , with other figures on  Flacăra , working as a copyist at the Prefecture, and helping at the Prefectural accounting office. In 1913-1914, his health deteriorated and he was eventually forced to relinquish his post.  Between the wars [edit]   In 1914, Bcovi ws intrn t th snitorium of Dr Mărgăritscu in Buchrst, from where he published poems in the literary supplement of the newspaper Seara  and sent Plumb  out for publication. In 1915, after leaving Bucharest, he became co-editor of the review Orizonturi noi   and continued to publish poetry, prose, and book reviews under a multitude of pseudonyms. He rekindled his friendship with Alexandru Macedonski. In 1916, he became a secretary at the Directory of Secondary and Superior Education in the Ministry of Instruction, and was in Bucharest when Plumb  first appeared in July. In October, however, the vagaries of war forced him to flee the thrtn Buchrst to Işi with th rchivs of his prtmnt  Bacovia returned to Bucharest in 1917, resuming his post as a functionary. In 1920, he became a Chief of Office, Third Class, in the Ministry of Labor; in 1921 he was promoted to Chief of Office, First Class in the same ministry. However, he immediately fell ill with a lung condition and was forced to resign before returning, a yr ltr, to Bcău  In 1924, the second edition of Plumb   ws pulish in Râmnicu Sărt Mnwhil, Bacovia found work as a teacher of drawing and calligraphy at the Boys' Commrcil School in Bcău By 1925, howvr, he had become the primary director of the review  Ateneu cultural  , and published his book of poetry Scântei galbene  ( Yellow sparks ) at his own expense. In the same year Bucăţi de noapte  ( Night fragments ) appeared in an edition edited by the poet Agatha Grigorescu. In 1926 he returned to the Boys' Commercial School and continued to teach drawing and calligraphy. House of George and Agatha Bacovia in Bucharest, today a museum In 1928, Bacovia married  Agatha Grigorescu, editor of Bucăţi de noapte , and settled   in Bucharest, where his wife was a teacher. In 1929, he republished Plumb  and Scântei galbene  in a single edition, entitled Poezii   and produced by Editura Ancora; soon after, the dormant review Orizonturi noi   resumed publication under his direction. He gained a post as an inspector at the Ministry of Popular Education, but after the publication of his collection Cu voi   ( With you ), he rturn with his wif to Bcău, whr h spnt thr yrs unmploy In 1931,  Agatha gave birth to Bacovia's only son, Gabriel; in 1932, the Romanian Society of Writers approved a monthly pension of 1000 lei. The family returned to Bucharest permanently in 1933, never to move away again. In 1934, Bacovia published an anthology of his poems entitled Poezii  ; in 1940, his pension increased to 2000 lei per month. He then founded the House of Pensions for Writers, from which he subsequently drew a 10.000-lei monthly pension. In 1944  his Opere  ( Works ) appeared, a collection including all of his previously published works. After the war  [edit]     In 1945, Bacovia was named librarian of the Ministry of Mines and Oil. He continued to write, and in 1946 published the volume Stanţe burgheze  ( Bourgeois positions ), which led to his hiring by the Ministry of the Arts. In 1956 he published his final volume of Poezii   before dying on the afternoon of 22 May 1957 in his Bucharest residence. Critical reception [edit]   Literary critics initially classified Bacovia as a Symbolist, but later criticism has argued that he transcended his milieu to form a part of modern Romanian poetry. Even if his first volume of poetry, Plumb  (1916), was heavily marked by the influence of the Symbolists, his subsequent volumes, such as Scântei galbene , show his discovery of a more modern poetic concept, closer to the prose-poem than to the classic verse forms of the 19th century. Interwar critics saw in Bacovia either a Nosymolist (Gorg Călinscu) or  minor pot with insufficint mtril (E Lovinescu). Just after the Second World War, however, Bacovia's poetry began to be linked to newer currents of thought, being linked with and compared to the theatre of the absurd (M. Petroveanu), poetic modernism, surrealism, automatic writing, imagism, expressionism, and even philosophic movements likeexistentialism (Ion Caraion). Bacovia thus succeeded in becoming recognized as one of the most important Romanian poets, an author who executed a vast canonical leap from minor poet to enduring classic of Romanian literature. Selected critical bibliography  [edit]         Agatha Grigorescu-Bacovia, Bacovia (viaţa poetului) , Buchrst, Eitur pntru Litrtură, 1962      Mihail Petroveanu, George Bacovia , Bucharest, Editura pntru Litrtură, 1969      Gheorghe Grigurcu, Bacovia, un antisentimental  , Bucharest, Editura Albatros, 1974.    Ion Caraion, Bacovia. Sfârşitul continuu , Bucharest, Editura Eminescu, 1975; Second Edition, Bucharest, Eitur Crt Românscă, 1979      Dinu Flamând, Introducere în opera lui G. Bacovia , Bucharest, Editura Minerva, 1979.    Daniel Dimitriu, Bacovia , Işi, Eitur Junim, 1981       Alxnr Inriş,    Alternative bacoviene , Bucharest, Editura Minerva, 1984.    Mircea Scarlat, George Bacovia - nuanţări  , Bucharest, Eitur Crt Românscă, 1987      Vasile Fanache, Bacovia. Ruptura de utopia romantică , Cluj, Editura Dacia, 1994 (reed. 2000).    Radu Petrescu, G. Bacovia , Pitşti, Eitur Prll 45, 1999 (reed. 2002).


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