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  1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of the Study Language is one of the most important things in human being, because it plays a great role in human life for making interaction. In order to communicate in English well, we should have English proficiency both in written and spoken One of the element grammar is conjunction that used to link words, phrases, and clauses together and provide a smooth transition between ideas. Conjunction refers to the use of formal markers to link sentences or the bigger parts of text, which also realize semantic relations between parts of text and; therefore, functions as a cohesive device. Baker (1991: 191) Halliday and Hasan (1984: 227) state that conjunctive relation is a relationship that indicates how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to thepreceding or the following (part of the) sentence. In other words, conjunction relation is a word or part of speech to link other words or phrases. The use of conjunction can be found in many various types of texts, comprising literary, religious, scientific, or  philosophical texts because it has function to tie a word with another word, a clause with another clause.  Novel is one example of literature work, and inside of it there is an equivalent effect to reader. The researcher uses the novel written by Elizabeth Gilbert’s entitled “Eat, Pray, Love”. This novel was an international bestseller, translated into over thirty languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide. In 2010, Eat, Pray, Love was made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like Chritina Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc. The novel became so popular that Time Magazine named Elizabeth as one of the 100 most influential people in the world Some previous researches had been conducted in dealing with the topic conjunction by university student . One of the research is Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009) in her thesis “ Conjunctions in William Faulkner’s Short Story “  A Rose  For Emily” . Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009) was the student of Faculty of Letters English Department University of Sumatera Utara Medan. In this thesis she discuses the structure of Conjunction by applying theory of Wren and Martin (1989) that explains conjunctive relations can be devided into two, they are : Coordinating Conjunction and Sub Ordinating Conjunction. She applies the library research method. The purpose of her thesis to clarify the use of conjunctive relation and to determine the percentage of the conjunctions. Another research was conducted by Ramasawmy, Narainsamy (2004) in her thesis entitled Conjunctive Cohesion And Relational Coherence in Students’ Composition. She was a student of Master of Arts  –   With  2 Specialisation in Applied Linguistics, University of South Africa. This research study examines the relationship  between conjunctive cohesion and relational coherence in students’ narrative and expository compositions and writing quality (here defined in terms of teachers’ ratings).   1.2 The Problems of the Study 1. What types of conjunctive relations are there in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth? 2. How are the conjunctive relations coded in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth? 3. Why are the conjunctive relation used in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth the way they are? 1.3 The Scope of the Study The discussion of the research will cover word, syntax, semantic, pragmatic, conjunctive relative. In this thesis, the researcher will apply the theory of Halliday that devides conjunctive relation into , they are : additive relation, adversative relation, causal relations and temporal relation. 1.4 The Objectives of the Study 1. to find out conjunctive relations are there in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth. 2. to analyze the conjunctive relations are coded in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth. 3. to investigate the conjunctive relation used in the novel eat, pray, love  by Elizabeth Gilberth the way they are. 1.5 The Significances of the Study 1) The result of this study can be used as additional knowledge to improve the vocabulary of conjunctive relations for Indonesian learners who study English. 2) The result of the study is expected to be able to improve the ability of Indonesian learners in studying English 3) This study is also useful to anyone who is doing research especially for s/he who has concentration for conjunctive relations topic. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITURATURE 2.1 Conjunctive Relations Conjunctive relation is one of the items in grammar, a body rules specifying how meaning are created in English. Conjunctive relation sometime is called conjunction as a word that links words, phrases, and clauses. It can be said that conjunctions were “linking “ or “ joining   “ words which joined together various things. If a  conjunctions “joined” words, then any word that occur between others would be a conjunctions  (Ehrlich, 2000:142). 2.1.1 Definition of Conjunctive Relations  3 There are some definition about conjunctive relations based on some grammarians. Wren and Martin (2004:129) state that conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences and sometimes word. Conjunction joins together sentence and often makes them more compact. While Frank (1985: 206) states that conjunctions are member of small class that have no characteristic form, their function are chiefly as non moveable structure words that join such units as part of speech , phrases, or clauses. Alwi, (2003:398) who states that the semantic relation between clauses in complex sentences depends first on the meaning of the connective itself and second on the meaning stated by the clauses it conjoins. Halliday & Hasan's (I976) the use of connective is not the only device for expressing a temporal or causal relation, for instance in English, a temporal relation may be expressed by means of a verb such as  follow or  precede, and a causal relation is inherent in the meanings of verb such as cause and lead to . Based on the clarification above conjunctive relation conjunctive relation involves the use of formal markers to relate sentences, clauses and paragraphs to each other. Conjunctive relatiom is an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or  phrases or  clauses or  sentences.  2.1.2 Types of the Conjunctive Relation Halliday & Hasan (1976) classify types of conjunctive relations into four main classes, namely Addition, Adversative, Causal and Temporal relation. Each can be specified as follows: 1. Additive relation between two elements show that one part of text gives additional information to the other which can be additive positive relation (shown by conjunctions and, furthermore, besides that, etc), additive negative relations, alternatives, afterthought ( a kind of deemphasis, reducing the weight accorded to the presupposing sentence and to its connection with what went before), comparative relation, and appositive relation (which can be either; expository: that is, I mean, in other words , or exemplificatory : for instance, for example) 2. Adversative relation of which the basic meaning is 'contrary to expectation'; the expectation may be derived from the content of what is being said or from the communication process, the speaker  –  hearer situation. Adversative relation can be contrastive, correction of meaning and wording and dismissal, e.g. but, however, instead, in any case. 3. Under the heading of causal relations are included result, reason, purpose and conditional relation. e.g.  so, because, to this end, then . 4. The temporal relation shows that the content may be one of the sequences in time. e.g.  previously, finally, briefly . Halliday and Hasan (1976) also add that the four conjunctive relations can be external or internal.  4 External means that the conjunctive relation has to be interprcted in terms of experiential function of language: It is a relation between meanings in the sense of representations of 'contents', our experience of external reality. Internal means that the conjunctive relation has to be interpreted in terms of interpersonal function of language; it is a relation between meanings in the sense of representation of the speaker's own 'stamp' on the situation - one's choice of speech role and rhetorical channel, his attitudes, his judgments and the like. 2.1.3 Reason of Using Conjunctive Relation There are some reason why it is very important to translate conjunctive relation well in a sentence ; they are : 1. Conjunctive relation is used to describe the cohesive tie between clauses or sections of text in such a way as to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between them. It is also possible to perceive this process as the linking of ideas, events or other phenomena. 2. Conjunctive relation is as one of cohesion that makes the text sentences hang together and textual quality. Conjunctive relations play an important role in discourse as they are used as coordination to conjoin “different grammatical units: clauses, clause elements , words. 2.1.4 The Position of Conjunctive Relation  In general, all of conjunctions occur between the sentences patterns, but it may occur at the beginning of the  patterns, at the end of the second pattern, or in the middle of the second pattern. Moreover, the clause coordinators are restricted to initial position in the clause. Clause began with coordinator cannot be moved to front of the clause because it will change the relationship of clauses. However, few words occur sometimes as subordinators and as connectors in the sentences. 2.2 Reason of Novel Eat, Pray, and Love The writer has chosen this book because  Eat, Pray, Love can motivate people to keep fighting for their independence and happiness. Because of her dissatisfaction, Elizabeth leaves her luxurious life to find peace and happiness. She inspires people to always have positive thinking. By reading this book the readers can learn how to face a problem with confidence and patience. In addition, this novel is also a fun book to read since it is taken from the real situation and written in a simple language style. Another reason why the researcher tries to analyze this memoir  Eat, Pray, Love , novel, which chronicled the  journey alone around the world, looking for solace after a difficult divorce. The book was an international bestseller, translated into over thirty languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide. In 2010,  Eat, Pray, Love , was made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like Chritina Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc .
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