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Band Instrument "Quick Fix" Repair Solutions

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1. Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions Written by aBand Director for Band Directors Gregory Biba 2. Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions Written…
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  • 1. Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions Written by aBand Director for Band Directors Gregory Biba
  • 2. Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions Written by a Band Director for Band Directors Gregory BibaSave time and money and end frustration with these quick fixes!The next time you encounter a stuck trumpet mouthpiece, trombone hand slide trouble, or a fuzzy-soundingclarinet, skip the long drive to the repair shop and the associated service fees— and consult Band Instrument ISBN-10: 1-57999-597-7“Quick Fix” Repair Solutions instead. ISBN-13: 1-978-57999-597-3 In an easy-to-follow, intuitively organized format, this manual provides essential repair techniques andinstrument maintenance suggestions. Many repairs are so easy that you and even your students can performthem with basic knowledge and instruction. The condensed and simplified instructions in the manual guideyou through each repair step-by-step. The instructions are supplemented by 60+ photos and illustrations and organized in a convenientspiral-bound flip-book format. Each instrument discussed in the guide is thoroughly labeled in the appendix. G-6901 $priceWritten by a K–12 band director with many years of emergency instrument repair experience, this is amust-have reference. GIA Publications, Inc. www.giamusic.comGregory Biba is Director of Bands in the Waupaca (Wisconsin) Public Schools.
  • 3. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:50 PM Page i Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions
  • 4. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page iii Band Instrument “Quick F ix” R e p a i r S o l u t i o n s Written by a Band Director for Band Directors Gregory Biba GIA Publications, Inc. Chicago
  • 5. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page iv Band Instrument “Quick Fix” Repair Solutions: Written by a Band Director for Band Directors Gregory Biba Cover, layout, and design: Joel A. Sibick GIA Publications, Inc. 7404 S. Mason Ave., Chicago 60638 Copyright © 2006 GIA Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America G-6901 ISBN-10: 1-57999-597-7 ISBN-13: 1-978-57999-597-3 www.giamusic.com
  • 6. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page vii Contents Il l us tr at io n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i x For ewo rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x i i i UNIT 1: BRASS INSTRUMENTS Water-Key Springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Chapter 1: General Care Additional Troubleshooting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Minimum Essential Tools and Accessories for the Repair and Maintenance of Brass Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Chapter 3: Slide Instrument Stuck Mouthpiece. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 T ombone r Cleaning and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Cleaning the Mouthpiece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Hand Slide Trouble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Straightening the Mouthpiece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Smashed Crook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Stuck Tuning Slides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Water Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapter 4: Rotary Valve Instrument Valentino Water Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 French Horn Amado Water Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Broken Valve String/Oiling the Valves (Temporary) . . . 39 Lever Arms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Valve Restringing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Chapter 2: Piston Valve Instruments Additional Troubleshooting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Tr u m p e t / C o r n e t , E u p h o n i u m / B a r i t o n e , T ba u Cleaning and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 UNIT 2: WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS Cleaning the Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter 5: General Care Oiling the Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Minimum Tools and Accessories for the Repair and Valve Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Maintenance of Woodwind Instruments. . . . . . . . . . 48 The Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Cleaning the Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Placement of the Valve Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Cleaning the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Valve Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Repairs and Maintenance on the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Valve Buttons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Cracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Valve Adjustment Corks and Felts. . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Loose Tenon Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Valve Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Tenon Recorking – Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 vii
  • 7. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page xiii Foreword The purpose of this book is to introduce both teachers and students to basic maintenance and minor repair techniques associated with the most common problems of different band instruments. Finding the quick fix solution to any repair will save valuable rehearsal or lesson time and could potentially save parents money on repairs, as well as allowing the band director to use budget money on only necessary repairs. Repairs typically sent to a repair shop are often simple and could instead be handled easily by the band director or a student. Sometimes repair and maintenance manuals are too technical and complicated. More condensed, simplified instructions will help lead directors or students through repairs in a step-by-step process. Remember, any time you attempt a repair, to make sure the instrument’s condition will be improved, not worsened. When directors show students how to handle their own minor or emergency repairs, it will enable the young musicians to learn how to care for their own instruments. The recommended repair tools can be obtained from any qualified repair technician; a basic kit is available from GIA Publications. —Greg Biba xiii
  • 8. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page 1 UNIT 1 BRASS INSTRUMENTS 1
  • 9. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page 3 Brass General Chapter 1 Care General Care To keep brass instruments out of the repair shop, students need to be reminded that cleaning certain parts of the instrument on a regular basis is essential. Damaging moisture comes in the form of condensation created when warm air meets cold brass. Saliva comes in much smaller amounts. The metal becomes corroded from the resulting oxidation reaction. The lead-pipe is a common area where small pink spots appear outside the tubing. These red spots, called red rot, develop from the process of the copper and nickel in the brass separating through corrosion. Always remind students to remove the mouthpiece from the instrument when it is not being played. Also encourage students to clean both the mouthpiece and lead-pipe with lukewarm water and a mild liquid soap (Dawn, ERA, etc.). Each student should have a schedule of cleaning and oiling valves, slides, springs, and mouthpiece. 3
  • 10. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page 5 Minimum Essential Tools and Accessories Brass General for the Repair and Maintenance of Care Brass Instruments P i s t o n Va l v e I n s t r u m e n t s : S lid e In str um ent : R ot ary Va l v e I n s t r u m e n t : Tr um pe t /C o r ne t, Tr omb one Fr en ch H or n E u p h o n i u m / B a r i t o n e, Tuba Valve brush To o l s To o l s To o l s Trombone snake or brush Screwdriver with thin-tipped Accessories blade Valve oil Accessories Slide oil Three sets of bottom valve Accessories Valentino water key corks Rotary valve oil springs (one for each: Trombone Slide Bow Several feet of braided, trumpet, cornet, Protector (DEG Music) 30-pound test fishing line euphonium/baritone, —prevents crook from tuba) getting smashed Assorted valve stem felts for the above instruments Valentino water key corks for the above instruments Trumpet mouthpiece Jam Stopper (G & D Enterprises) Toothpaste 5
  • 11. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:51 PM Page 7 Brass General Care Stuck Mouthpiece Procedure: 1. Make sure to support the braces and tubing as you grasp the instrument securely under one arm. 2. With one hand, pull on the mouthpiece and twist; with the other hand, tap the mouthpiece receiver with a rawhide mallet. Grinding one end of a rawhide mallet to a “V” helps you to more accurately hit the right point for freeing mouthpieces. (See Figure 1.1, Figure 1.2, and Figure 1.3.) Fi g u r e 1 . 1 . R e m o v i n g S t u c k Fi g u r e 1 . 2 . R e m o v i n g S t u c k Fi g u r e 1 . 3 . R e m o v i n g S t u c k Mo u t h p i e c e b y Ta p p i n g o n R e c e i v e r Mo u t h p i e c e b y Ta p p i n g o n R e c e i v e r Mo u t h p i e c e b y Ta p p i n g o n R e c e i v e r (Tr ump e t ) (F re n c h H o rn ) (Tr omb o n e ) W o r d s o f w i s d o m : When working with the trombone— 1. Be certain to lock the slide. 2. Strike on the mouthpiece receiver, NOT the cork barrel. 7
  • 12. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 33 Additional Troubleshooting Options Piston Valve 6. Remember that half of the large breather Inst hole is exposed (Figure 2.5). 7. Tighten the valve stem (if needed). 8. Put valve cap back on over the valve stem and screw on the finger buton. 9. Reoil the valve if needed. 10. Click the valve back in place. Fi g u r e 2 . 5 . Top o f Va l v e B r e a t h e r H o l e I s Ex p o s e d ( Eup honiu m) 33
  • 13. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 39 Chapter 4 Rotary Valve Instrument French Horn Broken Valve String/Oiling the Valves (Temporary) When there is a broken valve string, which is a very common problem, it is often because a valve is stuck and the musician forcibly depresses the valve key. Rotary Valve Oiling the valves should be done at least every few weeks. This can Inst French Horn be done by removing the valve cap and oiling the exposed shaft as it is rotated (Figure 4.1). Figur e 4 .1. O il in g E x p os e d S ha ft (F r e n c h H o r n ) 39
  • 14. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 40 Oiling the Valves (Temporary) To oil the top bearing, the following procedure should be used: Procedure: 1. Loosen the stop arm head screw about three turns. 2. Lift the stop arm head enough so the oil can run in on top of the bearing surface (Figure 4.2). Fi g u r e 4 . 2 . O i l i n g To p B e a r i n g (F re n c h H o rn ) 40
  • 15. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 41 Lever Arms Valve action can be greatly improved if the levers are as close to the stop arm as possible (Figure 4.3). (Being parallel to the rotor shaft is very important.) Rotary Valve Lever A is in the correct position for effective Inst French Horn stringing. Reminder: never adjust the height of the three keys by bending the key paddles. Fi g u r e 4 . 3 . L e v e r A r m P o s i t i o n i n g ( F r e n c h H o r n ) 41
  • 16. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 42 Valve Restringing The string used should be woven rayon or nylon and of 30–50-pound test fishing line. Tie the 1 double knot string as shown, with the string wrapping under key extension 4 continue circling the lever stop arm head itself to lock it under the screws (Figure 4.4). 3 stop arm screw When stringing, tighten the stop arm screw 6 loop string clockwise around key lever screw valve adjustment lightly to hold the lever while you finish stringing. cork 2 5 feed string through 2 stop arm head key extension lever hole Procedure: 1. Loosen both the stop arm screw and the key F i g u r e 4 . 4 . P r o p e r R e s t r i n g i n g ( F r en c h H o r n) lever screw and remove the brokenstring. 2. Cut a piece of string to seven or eight inches. 3. Tie a double knot in one end. 42
  • 17. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 45 UNIT 2 WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS
  • 18. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:52 PM Page 47 Chapter 5 General Care One of the most important reminders for any woodwind player is to get rid of as much excess moisture from the instrument as possible. Moisture appears in the form of condensation from the breath and saliva in the mouth. When water is absorbed into a wooden instrument, the body swells and shrinks unevenly because the inside dries out more slowly than the outside. One of the reasons wood cracks is because the natural oils evaporate around the tone holes and in the bore. Sudden temperature changes also put stress on the wood. If wood becomes too dry, it will pull away from the metal key posts, causing them to become loose. Woodwind General If one of these posts is supporting a needle spring, the tension from the spring can cause the post to turn, Care thus binding the keys. (Tenon rings can also become loose when wood dries out and retracts.) Some other reasons students should always swab out all sections of the instrument and avoid any exposure to sudden temperature changes are to keep the bore of the instrument clean and to draw moisture away from the pads, which extends the life of the pad and prevents residue buildup. Also, when tone holes change shape, joints shrink and don’t fit, steel rods rust, and keys become bound. 47
  • 19. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:53 PM Page 63 Common Adjustment Problems Left-Hand Lever Keys Located on the lower joint on the left-hand side are two long lever keys, which play the middle of the staff B-natural and C-sharp as well as below the staff low E and F-sharp (Figure 6.8). If the action is noisy, it is probably due to the fact that the fish skin, at the point at which the ends of the two long lever keys and the ends of the horizontal key arms join, is lost or has worn out (Figure 6.9). Woodwind Clarinet Fi g u r e 6 . 8 . L e f t - H a n d L e v e r K e y s L o c a t e d Fi g u r e 6 . 9 . E l i m i n a t i n g N o i s y A c t i o n w i t h o n L o w er J o i n t ( C l a r i n e t ) Fi s h S k i n P a d , P l a s t i c Tr as h Ba g , P l a s t i c Fo od W ra p, or Te f l o n Ta p e ( C l a r i n e t ) 63
  • 20. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:53 PM Page 71 Chapter 7 Oboe Repairs and Maintenance Testing and Adjusting for Leaks Oboes are very touchy. A certified repair technician should service an oboe if you are not completely comfortable making necessary adjustments. Procedure: 1. Press down R1 with the thumb. With the index finger of your right hand, press L2. Notice that L-a is lowered with this action. Insert the feeler gauge under L-a, press L2, and withdraw the gauge, hopefully with an even drag. If the drag is uneven, the key (L-a) is not seating. Locate the small adjustment screw that controls this key, and turn it about one-quarter (clockwise) turn. With the feeler gauge, check to see if key L2 is seating. If not, the adjustment screw for Woodwind Oboe L-a has been turned too far and should be backed off slightly. Continue checking until both keys are seating. 71
  • 21. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:53 PM Page 79 Common Adjustment Problems Octave Mechanism If the instrument fails to sound any notes in the low register and only those in the high register, the octave mechanism needs adjusting. To check the adjustment, play A and G above the staff. When G is played, the octave key on the neck should be down (closed). When A is played, the octave key should be up (open). When the octave ring is bent, the octave key on the neckpiece will be held open all the time. To Fi g u r e 8 . 1 . N e c k : O c t a v e M e c h a n i s m A d j u s t m e n t ( S a x op h o n e ) ensure that the octave key will operate correctly, bend the ring back in place while holding the pad cup down (Figure 8.1). Hold the pad cup down while pushing the octave Woodwind ring in slightly. Saxophone 79
  • 22. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:54 PM Page 103 Problem: Ar m s t r o n g/ k e y b e lo w A -fl at key i s st uck Solu tion : Long rods run the length of the body. As you follow the long rods to the bottom end of the body, notice that the longest rod that is closest to the foot joint (E-flat key) has a small screw in the end (Figure 9.1). This screw is in the end of the longest rod, nearest to the E-flat key of the foot joint, and it is too tight and binding Fi g u r e 9 . 1 . Ke y B e l o w A -f l a t Ke y Is S t u c k ( F l u t e ) within the rod. Thus, loosen the L o o se n t h e s c r ew in t h e e n d o f t h e screw very slightly until the A-flat l o n g e st r o d a n d cl o s e st t o t h e key pad is loose enough to move freely. fo o t jo i n t E- f l a t k e y Woodwind Flute 103
  • 23. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:54 PM Page 107 APPENDIX
  • 24. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:54 PM Page 115 Clarinet E</B< trill pad connection C#/B# pad register key thumb ring side F# key side E</B< pad side E</B< key side B< key side F# pad B/F# pad side C key F#/C# key third-ring pad second-ring pad A< pad E/B key first-ring pad side B< pad F/C pad E/B pad side C pad A pad F#/C# pad A key A</E< key F/C key second ring A< key B/F# key A</B< pad third ring E/B lever E</B< trill key first ring F#/C# lever F/C lever C#/G# key 115
  • 25. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:55 PM Page 116 Bass Clarinet thumb pad/key side F# pad register key side E</B< pad register pad (lower) E</B< trill pad (not shown) G/D pad (not shown) B/F# pad (not shown) F#/C# key side B< key side B< pad side E</B< key side F# key E/B key side C key side C pad bell E< key connection F/C pad E/B pad A pad A< pad E/B “first-ring” helper pad A key A< key bell E< pad (not shown) C/G pad E/B “first-ring” pad/key F#/C# pad (not shown) C#/G# pad D/A “second-ring” pad/key A</E< pad (not shown) B/F# key F#/C# lever G/D key C#/G# key E</B< trill key F/C key E/B lever A/E pad/key D/A “second-ring” helper pad A</E< key F/C lever B</F pad/key B/F# “third-ring” pad 116
  • 26. G-6901QuickFixLayout.ver 103 9/18/06 3:55 PM Page 118 Saxophone altissimo F# pad octave key side B< key body octave pad alternative altissimo key high E pad E pad/key F pad/key high E key B helper pad chromatic F# key altissimo F# key connection side C key G key D pad/key G# pad A key E< key G pad B< key Bis key A pad B pad/key bell C key E< pad bell C pad neck octave pad palm F pad palm E< pad (not shown) palm D pad (not shown) E< palm key bell C# pad bell C# key bell B< pad D palm key bell B pad bell B key G# key F helper pad F palm key bell B< key 118
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