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bangladesh foreign policy

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bangladesh foreign policy
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   1  Preface: Foreign policy is not created in a vacuum. It is grounded on a country’s strengths and  weaknesses. Besides, size, geographical location and resources influence directions of foreign  policy. All these attributes are to be assessed objectively and dispassionately in determining the  policy. Furthermore, foreign policy is an extension of domestic policy. In other words, objectives of domestic policy are to be pursued robustly through foreign policy. Domestic and foreign  policies are two sides of the same coin. It cannot be separated. One particular fact is to be noted in this context what Lord Palmerstone has said that no country is an eternal enemy or a  permanent friend. What is permanent is national interest and it is to be pursued vigorously. 1  Bangladesh is located in South Asia. The region is war-torn one since 1947. Peace and stability have eluded the region. Bangladesh is sandwiched between two rising Asia’s giants—  India and China. India is the hugging neighbor and China is only 100 miles across the Himalayas. Furthermore, Bangladesh stands as a bridge between South Asia and South East Asia. Foreign policy is based on certain ingredients such as, history, geography, religion, culture and natural resources. The ingredients are not changeable. Foreign policy of small states is a difficult  process. It is more difficult in the contemporary world situation. Bangladesh belongs to the category of small states in terms of its size, population, natural resources, state economy and military capability. For instant Bangladesh behaves differently with other state and organization towards security, prosperity, status and global environment. The two important area of Bangladesh Foreign Policy are security and development. 1   Bangladesh Foreign Policy: Realities & Challenges By Barrister Harun ur Rashid, Former Bangladesh Ambassador to the UN, Geneva.   2  Foreign policy: ―We he have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our   interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow.‖  ------------------Lord Palmerston, (Henry John Temple, 1784-1865) 3rd Viscount, 1848. These forthright and prophetic words of Lord Palmerston dating back about a century and a half had placed t he essence of a country’s foreign policy destiny. Time has changed, so has process and structure of decision-making, and even the nature of the international system itself has changed; but the focus or motivation of foreign policy decision-making has not. It is appropriate to mention that Palmerston's foreign office had about 50 staff members, a hundred year later George Brown was presiding over a foreign office with a staff hundred-fold more than in Palmerston's time. Across the Atlantic, when. Thomas Jefferson took over as the First Secretary of State in 1790; the U.S. State Department had eight employees, two diplomatic missions and ten consular posts. If one compares the current diplomatic setup in either of the two countries with the old one can imagine how complex and wide-ranging foreign policy establishment has emerged in either of these countries. 2   The term ―FOREIGN POLICY‖ is comprised of two words consequently foreign and policy. Any place or country that is situated outside of a country is called foreign and the word policy refers to principle by following which any state achieved its desired goal. Padelford, Lincoin and Olvy mentioned that, ―policy is the overall result of the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and interests into specific courses of action in order to achieve its objectives and preserve its interests ‖.   2   Normative Trends, Values, and Bangladesh Foreign Policy,  Ambassador Wali-ur Rahman     3  Definition of foreign policy: Foreign policy can be defined in various ways as the foreign policy experts give various definitions. Some of them given below: According to .Merriam Webster dictionary foreign policy indicates, ―The policy of a sovereign state in its interaction with other sovereign states‖  According to prince Otto von Bismarck, ―The extension of domestic policy is foreign policy.‖  According to C.V, Crabbe, ―Foreign policy is constructed with two elements namely fixing natio nal goals and the medium through which the goals will be fulfilled.‖   Determinants of Bangladesh Foreign policy: There are some determinants of Bangladesh foreign policy which have impact on foreign policy formulation. They are given below: 1.   Geographical-Strategic position. 2.   Population 3.   Economic condition. 4.   Ideological environment. 5.   Military Capability. 6.   Quality of Government, national leadership and diplomacy. 7.    National History. 8.   Religion. 9.   Culture and Natural Resources.   4  Principles of Bangladesh Foreign policy: There are some principles maintained by the foreign policy of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a member of various international key organizations such as the UN, the NAM etc. so the principles of Bangladesh foreign policy cannot be controversial with the principles of these organizations. There are four basic principles of Bangladesh foreign policy. These are given below: 1. Friendship to all and malice towards none. 2. Respect to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of other states. 3. Non interval in the domestic matter of any state. 4. World peace. Aims of Bangladesh Foreign policy: 1.To promote national interest. 2.To ensure national security. 3.To ensure development. 4.To increase national dignity. 5.To keep her Ideology alive. as i want to focus on national security framework and development, want to discus in short about ensuring national security and development. To ensure national security:  National security has two dimensions namely internal and external. By the internal dimension, we understand the political and economic stability in domestic sphere. It means there is no turbulent situation in Bangladesh domestic sphere. On the other side by the external security, we understand the preservation of Bangladesh sovereignty from the external enemies. When policy makers formulate foreign policy they keep this matter and make the policy.   5  To ensure the development:  Nationwide development is another agenda of Bangladesh foreign policy. So when foreign  policy is formulated then it is followed that how development will be generated and for that what type of aid or grant is needed and how it can be attained from whom. By considering all these foreign policy of Bangladesh is formulated. Security and Bangladesh Foreign Policy: Security had been and continues to be the prime concern of individuals, groups and states in the  present world order. The end of cold war did not lessen the chances of armed conflicts. The chance of land invasion by the adversaries is obviously less likely, but the use of armed forces to impose national objectives is still a reality worldwide. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the danger of these devastated weapons ending up in the hands of the terrorist organizations are obviously frightening matters. Nuclearization of South East Asia and the  possible unintended or accidental use of the nuclear weapons by our neighbours like India or Pakistan are posing serious security challenges for the whole of Southeast Asian nations including Bangladesh. The Bangladesh foreign policy is described by many as a moderate policy which greatly relies on multinational diplomacy. It is said that most of the diplomacy employed by Bangladesh takes  place within the United Nations. Bangladesh is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations ever since 1974 and during the same year it had joined the Unite Nations. Ever since 1974, Bangladesh served two terms on the Security Council, one starting in 1978 and another in 2000. Bangladesh is also a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a membership aimed at enhancing cooperation and relations with the neighboring South Asian states, as well as other countries in the area. This association was founded in 1985 and ever since Bangladesh was elected to occupy the Secretary General post twice.
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