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bernoulli's experiment

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first experiment
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  1 ABSTRACT This experiment is carried out to investigate the validity of Bernoulli’s theorem when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct to measure the flow rates and both static and the total pressure heads in a rigid tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. The Bernoulli’s theorem relates the pressure, velocity and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas). The compressibility and viscosity of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady and laminar. In order to dem onstrate the Bernoulli’s theorem, the model FM 24 is  placed on top of model FM 110 whereby it is a Bernoulli’s Apparatus Test Equipment are used in this experiment. INTRODUCTION Figure 1.1: APPARATUS USED TO INVESTIGATE THE VALIDITY OF BERNOULLI'S EQUATION Figure above show the apparatus used in this experiment when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct. The apparatus consists of a clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross section known as Venturi. The duct has a series of wall tapping that allows measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while the total head tube is  provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tapping are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometer is facilitated by a hand pump.  2 The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses and the connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose attached to the outlet  pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control valve and the  bench supply control valve. The unit consists of the followings: 1)   Venturi The venture meter is made of transparent acrylic with the following specifications: Throat diameter : 16mm Upstream diameter : 26mm Designed flow rate : 20LPM 2)   Manometer There are eight manometer tubes: each length 320mm for static pressure and total head measuring along the venture meter. The manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as well as tubes pressurization 3)   Baseboard The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with four height adjustable stands to level the venture meter 4)   Discharge valve One discharge vave is installed at the venture discharge section for flow rate control 5)   Connections Hose connections are installed at both inlet and outlet 6)   Hydraulic Bench Sump tank : 120 litres Volumetric tank : 100 litres Centrifugal pump : 0.37 kW, 50 LPM  3 AIMS / OBJECTIVES 1)   To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli’s equation when applied to the steady flow of the water in a tapered duct. 2)   To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. THEORY Figure1.2: PIPE OF VARYING CROSS SECTION   (Giles R.V 1994) Bernoulli’s law indicates that, if an inviscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnates. The well- known Bernoulli’s equation is derived under the following assumptions: 1)   The fluid is incompressible (density constant) 2)   The flow is steady;    3)   The flow is frictionless 4)   Flow along a streamline  4
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