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Bimbingan IV - 12-3-2014

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  1 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of the Study Language is one of the most important things in human being, because it  plays a great role in human life for making interaction. By using language someone could make statements, convey facts and knowledge, explain or report something, and keep social relations among the language users. These indicate that by means of language, people can express their ideas, feeling, information, and messages through communication. In order to communicate in English well, we should have English  proficiency both in written and spoken. In English, written is distinct from spoken. It is considered that written English is more difficult than spoken English. Furthermore, to be better in written English we must know about the grammar first. Grammar is the most important thing in studying English. Studying grammar enable us to know how to use English correctly. Kaplan (1995: 134) states that the term of grammar is often used to refer to a particular body of information about a language. It has something to do with the structure of words and sentences. While Sibarani (2002:12) states that word are the smallest linguistic unit which can occur on its own including lexeme and word form. Words can be grouped into word classes, traditionally they are labeled into “parts of speech”, according to their use; that is according to the work they do in a sentence, and they are: verb, noun, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.  2 2 One of the element grammar is conjunction that used to link words,  phrases, and clauses together and provide a smooth transition between ideas. Conjunction refers to the use of formal markers to link sentences or the bigger  parts of text, which also realize semantic relations between parts of text and; therefore, functions as a cohesive device. Baker (1991: 191) Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but directly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the  preceding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse (Halliday: 1976:266). Conjunction sometimes is named as conjunctive relation. Halliday and Hasan (1984: 227) state that conjunctive relation is a relationship that indicates how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to thepreceding or the following (part of the) sentence. In other words, conjunction relation is a word or part of speech to link other words or phrases. One use of a conjunctive relatiom is to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. The existence of conjunction or conjunctive relation is absolutely important to be observed because conjunction is used as the glue that ties in every sentence. In this case, this study also observes conjunction used in novel. In it the writers have to create their statement as well as possible in order to make the language they used arranged nicely so that the ideas can be received easily without ambiguous statement. Therefore, it needs cohesive markers such as conjunction to make it clearly interpreted.  3 3 The use of conjunction can be found in many various types of texts, comprising literary, religious, scientific, or philosophical texts because it has function to tie a word with another word, a clause with another clause. It will help us to understand the connection of the sentences or the paragraphs.. So, the role of conjunction is very important, not only in scientific and technology books, but also in literary books. Literary book is the art of written work. Literature may consist of texts  based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on srcinal imagination, such as poetry, prose, short story, novel, play and etc.  Novel is one example of literature work, and inside of it there is an equivalent effect to reader. The researcher uses the novel written by Elizabeth Gilbert‟s entitled “Eat, Pray, Love” . This novel was an international bestseller, translated into over thirty languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide. In 2010, Eat, Pray, Love was made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like Chritina Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc. The novel  became so popular that Time Magazine named Elizabeth as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. The subject of this research is the conjunctive relation in the novel “Eat, Pray, Love: by Elizaberth Gilberth‟s . This research tries to analyze the use of conjunctive elements in the novel “Eat, Pray, Love” . The reason why this topic is interesting to be discussed is because in this novel the researcher can find various kinds of conjunctive relation that can be analyzed. The role of conjunctive relation and how they are coded in the novel will be discussed in this research.  4 4 Some previous researches had been conducted in dealing with the topic conjunction by university student . One of the research is Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009 ) in her thesis “  C onjunctions in William Faulkner‟s Short Story “  A Rose  For Emily” . Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009) was the student of Faculty of Letters English Department University of Sumatera Utara Medan. In this thesis she discuses the structure of Conjunction by applying theory of Wren and Martin (1989) that explains conjunctive relations can be devided into two, they are : Coordinating Conjunction and Sub Ordinating Conjunction. She applies the library research method. The purpose of her thesis to clarify the use of conjunctive relation and to determine the percentage of the conjunctions. Another research was conducted by Ramasawmy, Narainsamy (2004) in her thesis entitled Conjunctive Cohesion And Relational Coherence in Students’ Composition. She was a student of Master of Arts  –   With Specialisation in Applied Linguistics, University of South Africa. This research study examines the relationship between conjunctive cohesion and relational coherence in students‟ narrative and expository compositions and writing quality (here defined in terms of teachers‟ ratings).  Based on all the explanations above, the writer is concerned in researching deeply the analysis of the conjunctive relation in the novel pray, eat and love written by Elizabeth Gilbert‟s . 1.2 The Problems of the Study
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