Biodiversity MS

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  1. (a)(i)The Gaia philosophy envisages the entire planetas a living, self regulating organism; 1  (ii)an open system exchanges energy and material,a closed system exchanges energy but not material; 1  (b)sunlight converted by producers; producers eaten by consumers;some energy released as heat;consumers eaten by other consumers;detrital decay; 3 max  (c)(i)  For example coral reefs: coral reefs increasingly seen as an economicresource rather than a subsistence resource;coral reefs have been used for increasinglyintensive fishing;source of building materials;sites for tourism; pollution sink;cultural and technological change for examplein fishing industry (dynamite fishing); political motives behind promoting tourist opportunities;under increasing population pressure;has led to overfishing (unsustainable);loss of biodiversity;damage to extremely vulnerable polyps;and knock-on effects throughout the ecosystem; 4 max  (ii)  For example: conservation areas / national parks;restricting resource use or alloing resourceuse at a sustainable level ithin the park;ill have economic implications;can be difficult to police;ocean is an open system;indigenous people need to retain control;victim of your on success; 3 max [12]  2. (a)calculate abundance of organisms;using !incoln index / impson#s diversity index / $uadrats;description of techni$ue;compare data or previously collected data; 3 max  1  evaluation% si&e of $uadrat and si&e of organism;seasonality;timescale;reliability of past data; 2 max  (b)  Range of possible responses depending on examples used. natural ha&ard event / global catastrophic event( i.e. species in the rong place at the rong time;lo population total;very speciali&ed e.g.  vulnerable if food source becomes extinct;loss of habitat of human activity ' unable to adapt;target for hunters;unable to compete ith genetically modified or no-native species;reproductive behaviour and potential;trophic level; 6 max  (c)named protected area e.g. asaai ara ational *ark, +enya; how it is designed to preserve species diversity: controlled / prohibited hunting of species;control of visitor numbers;guidelines for visitor behaviour to ensure breeding patterns not disrupted;no development policy ithin park;reintroduction of endangered species;local onership by asaai people; 3 max   evaluate its success:  protection allos diversity to be maintained;visitors more likely to support ider campaigns if theyhave visited a place;foreign currency earned by asaai make it orth their hile;more successful the park the more visitors it ill attract;imbalance in population hen certain species are protected;limits on tourists numbers limit revenue that can be earned;migratory species need to travel beyond boundaries of park;conflict beteen ild species and indigenous herders and farmers; 6 max [20]  2   3. (a)increase in population groth as death rates loered due to better medical care;increased ealth means people are consuming more (sometimesmore than they need);economics of food production systems mean that food productionis a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter homuch is produced;desire for food security in turbulent political times;as more and more land is used for settlement and industry,increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land;in !.s food production used as a ay to generate foreign currency; 4 max  (b)  Answer will, of course, depend on the problems chosen.  [4]   for each  problem. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.e.g. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil, so soilstructure is lost;top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion(ind or ater);even more erosion likely if ind breaks (hedgeros and alls)are removed;once top soil is lost, organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced;this occurred during the 012s in the 3 due to intensive farmingon the prairies;leading to the dust bol as vast $uantities of soil ere blon aay;leads to loer yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may beeven more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate; 8 max  (c)  Answers may be general, covering a variety of strategies or more specific, addressing strategies related to a particular problem.Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.e.g. a general answer: use of natural fertili&ers ( e.g. manure) rather than chemical fertili&ers;controlling the amount of fertili&ers that are applied to ensure excessis not ashed into ater bodies;organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers tocompensate for higher production costs; biological pest control rather than chemical control;keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost;encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease;agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion;specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e.g. terracing; 5 max  Expression of ideas  [3 max]  [20]  3  4. (a)technocentrist because they tend to argue that economicdevelopment should precede environmental protection;and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology hich comes hen the economy is strong;ould point to 4success5 stories like .anada and candinaviaho have good environmental records and are economically developed; 2 max  (b)  Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainableforms e.g. ne poer stations or investment in reneabletechnologies such as solar;often !.s rely on eak pollution las to attract multinationalsto locate there;so if they set environmental controls they ill lose 6obs andincome vital for development;rights to emit .7 8  for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more .7 8 ) hichhas implications for industrial development;often countries ith best record of environmental protection arethe most developed economically e.g. candinavia; people in poverty ill often be forced to act ith short-term perspective e.g. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive;it is not fair to expect !.s to protect the environment, as richer countries didn#t hen they ere going through their industrialrevolutions;  Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have hugeecological footprints and are very asteful e.g. 3 , 3+, 9apan;unsustainable use of the environment ill only bring short-termeconomic groth not long-term economic groth;often the most sensible users of the environment are peopleho are considered 4undeveloped economically5; e.g. indigenous tribes in :ma&onia/street kids recycling aste; people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment ' vital to protect it to help them;surely e can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries;(very anthropocentric vie) hat about the rights of other livingspecies to be unmolested;environmental damage ill have a knock-on effect on humansocieties that cannot ait until everyone has developed beforee address it e.g. loss of species diversity once gone its gone;environment is the source of our resources for development soit is vital that the to go hand in hand ' sustainable development; 10 max  4
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