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BOOK REVIEW - Millitary Strategies

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This article is about the Military Strategies and how important the strategies in military world.
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  1  BOOK REVIEWTitle: Coercive Military Strategy. Author: Stephen J. Cimbala. Publisher: Texas A&M University Press Publisher College Station 1!! . Reviewed by: C#r Jamalu#in bin $% Sairi M' (CP )*+. Introduction Stephen J. Cimbala is ,istinguishe# Pro-essor o- Political Science Pennsylvania StateUniversity (ran#y/ine Campus+. $is teaching an# research interests inclu#einternational politics an# -oreign policy #e-ense an# security stu#ies arms control peaceoperations con-lict termination an# in-ormation /ar-are.,r. Cimbala is the author o- numerous boo0s an# articles in pro-essional %ournalson topics relate# to national security. $e is an a/ar# /inning teacher having receive#the Pennsylvania State Universitys 2isenho/er A/ar# -or ,istinguishe# Teaching in1!!3. $e /as selecte# -or inclusion in 4*** 5utstan#ing Scholars o- the 4*th Century bythe 6nternational iographical Centre Cambri#ge 2nglan# an# is a member o- 5micron,elta 7appa 8ea#ership $onor Society. $e has serve# as a consultant on arms controlto the U.S. Arms Control an# ,isarmament Agency (1!!9:1!!!+ to the U.S. ,epartment  o- State (1!!!+ an# to private #e-ense contractors. ,r. Cimbala is a -aculty associate o- Penn State Universitys 6nstitute -or the Stu#y o- 'onlethal ,e-ense Technologies. $elives in ,rexel $ill Pa. /ith his /i-e 2li;abeth $ar#er Cimbala sons ,avi# an#Christopher. Developent o! the Review ST2P$2' J. C6MA8A the author o- this boo0 has pro#uce# a very use-ul boo0 /hichraises important <uestion about coercive military strategy. Cimbala is a pro-essor o-  political science at the ,ela/are County Campus o- Penn State University. $e argue# inhis boo0 that coercive military strategy is one aspect o- persuasion that supporte# by thethreat or use o- -orce. The use o- -orce may not be -or the purpose o- combat although itcan be. =orce can also be use# e--ectively -or political purpose by being threatene# butnot use#. Coercive strategy is recogni;e# by its subtlety an# #exterity even /hen it isnecessary to employ a blunt e#ge. This variety in /ays o- ma0ing /ar pro#uces e<ual#iversity in the role o- coercion in states> military strategies. Use o- -orce is coercive? animportant <uestion -or theory an# policy is /hether coercion is at the center or the periphery o- a state>s military strategy. Strategy is a purpose-ul activity but it is also a/or0 o- art that ta0es place /ithin a context o- historical uncertainty an# in#eterminacy. 4  The Authors Viewpoint nd An lysis 6 begin this boo0 revie/ /ith a #escription on the structure o- the boo0. The boo0 is #ivi#e# into three parts parts one is the coercion in /ar an# strategy: cases o- successan# -ailure parts t/o is attributes o- coercive military strategy an# parts three is the -aceso- military coercion easy to un#erstan# -or any rea#ers. The -irst part is a brie- loo0 atsome historical cases to sho/ the historical generality as /ell as the topicality o- the problem o- military coercion. $istory /ill al/ays been there an# it /ill not go a/ay butit has not al/ays been recogni;e# -or /hat it is an# the nature o- coercion has al/ays been part o- a success-ul /ar. An attac0er /ho prepares /ell -or /ar /ill -re<uently havein#uce# in the inten#e# victim>s lea#ership an# public a -eeling o- helplessness a -eeling/orth many #ivisions. $e too0 example something li0e the -atalism ta0en hol# o- the=rench political an# military lea#ership in the spring o- 1!)*. An opposite too it isexample provi#e# by ussia>s /inter /ar against =inlan# in 1!@!:1!)*. The =inn o--ere#unexpecte# resistance an# Stalin /as -orces to use signi-icant military resources in or#er to sub#ue them. The =inn re-use# to regar# their #e-eat as inevitable although later historian no/ say that it /as. 5thers examples given by Cimbala on his /riting is /hen 'apoleon employ a coercive strategy by his continental system to exclu#e ritish tra#e-rom continental 2urope. The aim /as to impose economic privation on reat ritain sothat its lea#ership an# citi;en /oul# eventually <uit the struggle against =renchhegemony on 2uropean territory.@  The secon# parts Cimbala explaine# ho/ in the post:Col# Bar internationalsystem politics is a compelling -orce an# technology is an enabling -orce -or the#evelopment o- coercive military strategy. A goo# -ormulate# coercive military strategycan be recogni;e# by -ive characteristics /hich are the best thought o- a behavioral spacein three #imensions. These /ill involves the goals an# means use# to/ar# those goals byone party to a con-lict the goals an# means o- the secon# party to the same con-lict an#-inally the environment /ithin /hich the competitive interaction bet/een the t/o si#es ista0ing place. The -ive characteristics he mentions in his boo0 are -irstly to in-luencing the/ill. This means coercive military strategy has as its primary ob%ective the tas0 o- in-luencing the opponent>s /ill as /ar is about in-luencing the /ill o- the enemy.Secon#ly is openness to revision coercive strategy o-ten re<uires an open to revisingone>s o/n initial political or military ob%ective /ithout necessarily conce#ing to theopponent its ob%ectives. 5b%ective may have to be revise# up/ar# or #o/n/ar# are becoming more ambitious. The thir# is perspective tal0ing these relate# to the ability torethin0 one>s goals an# ob%ectives is perspective ta0ing the ability an# /illingness to seeinto the other si#e>s ob%ectives motives an# appreciate their sources. A state may -eel thatits reputation -or resolve is on the line i- it -ails to stan# -irm against #eterrence or compellent threats pose# by an a#versary.The -ourth characteristics> is symbolic manipulation the ability to master themanipulation o- symbols an# in-ormation in support o- one>s political an# militaryob%ectives. eality is o-ten /hat people thin0 it is changing the perception o- reality it>scan be #one un#er the right con#itions to changes the ob%ective. Cimbala give example o- )
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