Brigs e Bauman

notas sobre brigs e bauman
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  A discussão dos gêneros ou dos enquadres, faz lembrar a questão da contingência com que é cercada a linguagem no discurso ordinário ou em seu uso instrumental, com Barthes, e a tendência do texto, por seu potencial deslocamento absoluto no espaço-tempo, de afastar toda contingência, de se fazer sempre como matéria aberta a qualquer contingência e, portanto, ambíguo, que não se fecha em si mesmo, que não suprime outros sentidos. Daí o esforço em escrever prefácios, introduções, comentários, etc., isto é, de oferecerenquadres que possibilitariam ao texto manter, sempre, seu sentido srcinal: isto no nível delirante das obsessões.por exemplo: One significant issue addressed by Hymes has to do with the scope orcomprehensiveness of genre as an organizing factor in the speech econ-omy of a community. O que faz perfeito sentido quanto à fala, ou quanto ao cotidiano, é destruído sistematicamente pela natureza própria a escritura e ao texto. The most significant dimension of contrast among formal perspec-tives on genre distinguishes those approaches that identify the formalorganization of genre as an immanent, normative, structuring propertyof texts from those that view generic form as a conventionalized but flex-ible and open-ended set of expectations concerning the organization offormal means and structures in discursive practice. The latter view tendsto raise the emergent properties of discursive organization to parity withthe socially given, normative dimensions of generic structure.p.144parece uma questão de dentro e fora, relativa ao texto(dentro).To be sure, the last 20 years have witnessed a shift in orientation fromtext to performance, with the latter term drawing researchers' attention toboth social and poetic dimensions of the assumption of accountability toan audience for a display of virtuosity, subject to evaluation (Bauman1977b; Hymes 1975a). Although concern with performance has helpedshift researchers' focus from the enduring object to the process of po-etic production and reception, this change runs the risk of simply draw-ing the analytic drawstrings widerÐto encompass the relationship be-tween linguistic and social or cultural dimensions of a given interactionÐrather than questioning the equation of poetics with immanent featuresof particular discursive acts. Not only is the focus too narrow, but it liesin the wrong place as well.p.146passando do dentro para o fora, acentuando, conforme briggs e bauman salientam, a dicotomia entre texto e contexto...Bakhtin was one of the first to replace the static hewing out of texts with amodel where literary structure does not simply exist but is generated in relationto another structure. What allows a dynamic dimension to structuralism is hisconception of the literary word as an intersection of textual surfaces rather thana point (a fixed meaning), as a dialogue among several writings: that of thewriter, the addressee (or the character), and the contemporary or earlier cul-tural context. [Kristeva 1980:64-65, emphasis in srcinal]p.146, (apud)ainda p.146: Two facets of this characterization are crucial. First, structure, form, func-tion, and meaning are seen not as immanent features of discourse but asproducts of an ongoing process of producing and receiving discourse.Second, this process is not centered in the speech event or creation of awritten text itself, but lies in its interface with at least one other utterance.The fallacy of this assumption is evident when one realizes that genresare not road maps to particular texts. Invocations of genre rather entailthe (re)construction of classes of texts. Specific features are then selected  and abstracted, thus bringing into play a powerful process of decontex-tualization.p.148One the one hand, texts framed in some genres attempt toachieve generic transparency by minimizing the distance between textsand genres, thus rendering the discourse maximally interpretablethrough the use of generic precedents. This approach sustains highlyconservative, traditionalizing modes of creating textual authority. On theother hand, maximizing and highlighting these intertextual gaps under-lies strategies for building authority through claims of individual creativ-ity and innovation (such as are common in 20th-century Western litera-ture), resistance to the hegemonic structures associated with establishedgenres, and other motives for distancing oneself from textual precedents.149Não tenho muita certeza quanto a esse segundo ponto, que me parece exagerar um pouco a questão da reivindicação de uma liberdade criativa, alicerçada na autoridade individual, quando sob muitos aspectos, o questionamento dos generos estabelecidos levou não somente a outras formas de construção da autoridade-autoria, mas a outras formas de se conceber a própria escrita, a arte, e daí por diante, mesmo outras formas de se conceber o real e o humano, como no surrealismo.generic intertextuality cannot be ade-quately understood in terms of formal and functional patterning aloneÐquestions of ideology, political economy, and power must be addressedas well if we are to grasp the nature of intertextual relations.159We would like to suggest that relations between intertextuality andideology can be read in both directionsÐin terms of the way that broadersocial, cultural, ideological, and political-economic formations shape andempower intertextual strategies and the manner in which ideologies ofintertextuality and their associated practices shape society and history.161A number of anthropologists have recently focused on literary inter-textuality in ethnographic writing, illuminating the way that both field-work and its representation are shaped by intertextual relations; the ge-neric parameters of ethnographies are shaped through intertextual linksnot simply with the discourse of Others, but with such literary genres astravel literature, autobiography, and colonial accounts (Clifford 1988;Clifford and Marcus 1986; Marcus and Fischer 1986; Taussig 1987,1992).162-163we argued that generic intertextual-ity is not an inherent property of the relation between a text and a genrebut the construction of such a relationship. A text can be linked to genericprecedents in multiple ways; generic framings of texts are thus oftenmixed, blurred, ambiguous, contradictory. We accordingly suggestedthat generic links necessarily produce an intertextual gap; the strategiesused for constructing intertextual relations can seek to minimize this gap,maximize it, or both. Choices between intertextual strategies are ideolog-ically motivated, and they are closely related to social, cultural, political-economic, and historical factors.163
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