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Brodmann Areas for Human

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  Brodmann areas for human & non-human primates    Areas 1, 2 & 3 - Primary Somatosensory Cortex (frequently referred to as Areas 3, 1, 2 by convention)    Area 4 - Primary Motor Cortex     Area 5 - Somatosensory Association Cortex     Area 6 - Pre-Motor and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex)    Area 7 - Somatosensory Association Cortex     Area 8 - Includes Frontal eye fields     Area 9 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex     Area 10 - Frontopolar area (most rostral part of superior and middle frontal gyri)    Area 11 - Orbitofrontal area (orbital and rectus gyri, plus part of the rostral part of the superior frontal gyrus)    Area 12 - Orbitofrontal area (used to be part of BA11, refers to the area between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior rostral sulcus)    Area 13 and Area 14 *  - Insular cortex     Area 15 *  - Anterior Temporal Lobe    Area 17 - Primary Visual Cortex (V1)    Area 18 - Visual Association Cortex (V2)    Area 19 - V3     Area 20 - Inferior Temporal gyrus    Area 21 - Middle Temporal gyrus    Area 22 - Superior Temporal Gyrus, of which the rostral part participates to Wernicke's area     Area 23 - Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex     Area 24 - Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex     Area 25 - Subgenual cortex    Area 26 - Ectosplenial area    Area 28 - Posterior Entorhinal Cortex     Area 29 - Retrosplenial cingular cortex    Area 30 - Part of cingular cortex    Area 31 - Dorsal Posterior cingular cortex     Area 32 - Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex     Area 34 - Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus)     Area 35 - Perirhinal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus)     Area 36 - Parahippocampal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus)     Area 37 - Fusiform gyrus     Area 38 - Temporopolar area (most rostral part of the superior and middle temporal gyri    Area 39 - Angular gyrus, part of  Wernicke's area     Area 40 - Supramarginal gyrus part of  Wernicke's area     Areas 41 & 42 - Primary and Auditory Association Cortex     Area 43 - Subcentral area (between insula and post/precentral gyrus)    Area 44 - pars opercularis, part of  Broca's area     Area 45 - pars triangularis Broca's area     Area 46 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex     Area 47 - Inferior prefrontal gyrus    Area 48 - Retrosubicular area (a small part of the medial surface of the temporal lobe)    Area 52 - Parainsular area (at the junction of the temporal lobe and the insula)   (*) Area only found in non-human primates.  The lateral postcentral gyrus  is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. It was initially defined from surface stimulation studies of Penfield, and parallel surface potential studies of Bard, Woolsey, and Marshall. Although initially defined to be roughly the same as Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2, more recent work by Kaas has suggested that for homogeny with other sensory fields only area 3 should be referred to as primary somatosensory cortex , as it received the bulk of the thalamocortical projection from the sensory input fields. Postcentral gyrus The lateral postcentral gyrus is bounded by:    medial longitudinal fissure medially (to the middle)    central sulcus rostrally (in front)    postcentral sulcus caudally (in back)    lateral sulcus inferiorly (underneath) It is the location of primary somatosensory cortex, the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch. Like other sensory areas, there is a map of sensory space called a homunculus in this location. For the primary somatosensory cortex, this is called the sensory homunculus . See a somewhat fanciful and highly schematic representation of the sensory homunculus below. Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2 Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2  comprise the primary somatosensory cortex of the human brain. Because Brodmann sliced the brain somewhat obliquely, he encountered area 1 first; however, from rostral to caudal the Brodmann designations are 3, 1 and 2, respectively. This area of cortex, as shown by Wilder Penfield and others, has the pattern of a homunculus. That is, the legs and trunk fold over the midline; the arms and hands are along the middle of the area shown here; and the face is near the bottom of the figure. While it is not well-shown here, the lips and hands are enlarged on a proper homunculus, since a large number of  neurons in the cerebral cortex are devoted to processing information from these areas. These areas contain cells that project to the secondary somatosensory cortex.  Clinical significance Lesions affecting the primary somatosensory cortex produce characteristic symptoms including: agraphesthesia, astereognosia, loss of  vibration, proprioception and fine touch (because the third neuron of the medial-lemniscal pathway cannot do its synapse in the cortex). It can also produce hemineglect, if it affects the non-dominant hemisphere. It could also reduce nociception, thermoception and crude touch, but since information from the  spinothalamic tract is interpreted mainly by other areas of the brain (see insular cortex and cingulate gyrus), it is not as relevant as the other symptoms. Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2 of human brain. Brodmann area 3 is in red, area 1 in green, and area 2 in yellow. Brodmann area 4  comprises the primary motor cortex of the human brain.  Brodmann area 4 is about the same as the precentral gyrus. The borders of this area are: the precentral sulcus in front (anteriorly), the medial longitudinal fissure at the top (medially), the central sulcus in back (posteriorly), and the lateral sulcus along the bottom (laterally). This area of cortex, as shown by Wilder Penfield and others, has the pattern of a homunculus. That is, the legs and trunk fold over the midline; the arms and hands are along the middle of the area shown here; and the face is near the bottom of the figure. Because Brodmann area 4 is in the same general location as primary motor cortex, the homunculus here is called the motor homunculus.  The term area 4 of Brodmann-1909  refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the frontal lobe of the guenon. It is located predominantly in the precentral gyrus. Brodmann-1909 regarded it as topographically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the human gigantopyramidal area 4 and noted that it occupies a much greater fraction of the frontal lobe in the monkey than in the human. Distinctive  features (Brodmann-1905): the cortex is unusually thick; the layers are not distinct; the cells are relatively sparsely distributed; giant pyramidal (Betz) cells are present in the internal pyramidal layer (V); lack of an internal granular layer (IV) such that the boundary between the external pyramidal layer (III) and the internal pyramidal layer (V) is indistinct; lack of a distinct external granular layer (II); a gradual transition from the multiform layer (VI) to the subcortical white matter.  Brodmann area 4 of human brain. Lateral surface. Part of  Precentral gyrus  Brodmann area 5  is one of  Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in somatosensory  processing. Human Brodmann area 5  is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. It is situated immediately posterior to the primary somatosensory areas (Brodmann areas 3, 1, and 2), and anterior to Brodmann area 7.  Image of brain with Brodmann area 5 shown in red
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