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  What Is Bronchiectasis?Bronchiectasis (brong-ke-EK-tah-sis) is a condition in which damage to the airways causes them to widen and become flabby and scarred. he airways are tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs.Bronchiectasis often is caused by an infection or other condition that in!ures the walls of the airways or re#ents the airways from clearing mucus. $ucus is a slimy substance. It hel s remo#e inhaled dust% bacteria% and other small articles from the airways.In bronchiectasis% your airways slowly lose their ability to clear out mucus. he mucus builds u % and bacteria begin to grow. his leads to re eated% serious lung infections.Each infection causes more damage to the airways. &#er time% the airways can't ro erly mo#e air in and out of the lungs. s a result% the body's #ital organs might not get enough oygen.Bronchiectasis can lead to serious health roblems% such as res iratory failure% atelectasis (at-eh-*EK-tah-sis)% and heart failure.&#er#iewBronchiectasis can affect !ust one section of one of your lungs or many sections of both lungs.he initial lung damage that leads to bronchiectasis often begins in childhood. +owe#er% sym toms may not occur until months or e#en years after you start ha#ing re eated lung infections.In the ,nited tates% common childhood infectionssuch as whoo ing cough and measlesused to cause many cases of bronchiectasis. +owe#er% these causes are now less common because of #accines and antibiotics./ow bronchiectasis usually is due to a medical condition that in!ures the airway walls or re#ents the airways from clearing mucus. Eam les of such conditions include cystic fibrosis and rimary ciliary (I*-e-ar-e) dyskinesia (dis-kih-/E-0e-ah)% or 123.Bronchiectasis that affects only one art of the lung may be caused by a blockage rather than a medical condition.Bronchiectasis can be congenital (kon-4E/-ih-tal) or ac5uired. 2ongenital bronchiectasis affects infants and children. It's the result of a roblem with how the lungs form in a fetus. c5uired bronchiectasis occurs as a result of another condition or factor. his ty e of bronchiectasis can affect adults and older children. c5uired bronchiectasis is more common thanthe congenital ty e.&utlook2urrently% bronchiectasis has no cure. +owe#er% with ro er care% most eo le who ha#e it can en!oy a good 5uality of life.Early diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis are im ortant. he sooner your doctor starts treating bronchiectasis and any underlying conditions% the better your chances of re#enting further lung damage.What 2auses Bronchiectasis?  3amage to the walls of the airways usually is the cause of bronchiectasis.  lung infection may cause this damage. Eam les of lung infections that can lead to bronchiectasis include6e#ere neumonia (nu-$&-ne-ah)Whoo ing cough or measles (uncommon in the ,nited tates due to #accination)uberculosis7ungal infections2onditions that damage the airways and raise the risk of lung infections also can lead to bronchiectasis. Eam les of such conditions include62ystic fibrosis. his disease leads to almost half of the cases of bronchiectasis in the ,nited tates.Immunodeficiency disorders% such as common #ariable immunodeficiency and% less often% +I8 and I3. llergic broncho ulmonary as ergillosis (- er-!i-*&-sis). his is an allergic reaction to a funguscalled as ergillus. he reaction causes swelling in the airways.3isorders that affect cilia (I*-e-ah) function% such as rimary ciliary dyskinesia. 2ilia are small% hair-like structures that line your airways. hey hel clear mucus (a slimy substance) out of your airways.2hronic (ongoing) ulmonary as iration (as- ih-9-shun). his is a condition in which you inhale food% li5uids% sali#a% or #omited stomach contents into your lungs. s iration can inflame the airways% which can lead to bronchiectasis.2onnecti#e tissue diseases% such as rheumatoid arthritis% !:gren;s syndrome% and 2rohn;s disease.&ther conditions% such as an airway blockage% also can lead to bronchiectasis. $any things can cause a blockage% such as a growth or a noncancerous tumor. n inhaled ob!ect% such as a iece of a toy or a eanut that you inhaled as a child% also can cause an airway blockage.  roblem with how the lungs form in a fetus may cause congenital bronchiectasis. his conditionaffects infants and children.Who Is at 9isk for Bronchiectasis?1eo le who ha#e conditions that damage the lungs or increase the risk of lung infections are at risk for bronchiectasis. uch conditions include62ystic fibrosis. his disease leads to almost half of the cases of bronchiectasis in the ,nited tates.Immunodeficiency disorders% such as common #ariable immunodeficiency and% less often% +I8 and I3. llergic broncho ulmonary as ergillosis. his is an allergic reaction to a fungus called as ergillus.he reaction causes swelling in the airways.3isorders that affect cilia function% such as rimary ciliary dyskinesia. 2ilia are small% hair-like structures that line your airways. hey hel clear mucus (a slimy substance) out of your airways.Bronchiectasis can de#elo at any age. &#erall% two-thirds of eo le who ha#e the condition are women. +owe#er% in children% the condition is more common in boys than in girls.
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