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Buddhism

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Buddhism
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  Buddhism The Buddha:   ã The Buddha also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata. ã Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini near !a ila#astu$ in %e al. ã &is 'ather Suddhodana was the Saka ruler. ã &is mother (ahamaya) o' !osala dynastry$ died a'ter * days o' his birth. Brought u by ste mother +autami. ã (arried at ,6 to -oshodhara. n/oyed the married li'e 'or ,3years and had a son named 0ahula. ã 1'ter seeing an old man) a si2k man) a 2or se and an as2eti2) he de2ided to be2ome a wanderer. ã Le't his ala2e at 4 in sear2h o' truth also 2alled (ahabhinishkramana or The +reat 0enuni2ation$ and wandered 'or 6 years. ã 1ttained nlightenment at 35 at +aya in (agadha Bihar$ under the Pi al tree. ã Deli#ered the 'irst sermon at Sarnath where his 'i#e dis2i les had settled. &is 'irst sermon is 2alled Dharma2hakra ra2artan or Turning o' the 7heel o' Law. ã 1ttained (aha arinir#ana at !ushinagar identi2al with #illage !asia in Deoria distri2t o' 8P$ in 9:3 BC at the age o' :; in the (alla re ubli2. Buddhist Councils:   ã First Council: 1t 0a/griha) in 9:3 BC under the Chairmanshi o' (ehakassaa a king was 1/atshatru$. Di#ided the tea2hings o' Buddha into two Pitakas<Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka. ã Second Council: 1t Vaishali) in 3:3 BC under Sabakami !ing was !alasoka$.=ollowers di#ided into Stha#irmadins and (ahasanghikas. ã Third Council: 1t Patali utra) in 5; BC under (ogali utta Tissa !ing was 1shoka$ >n this) the third art o' the Tri itaka was 2oded in the Pali language. ã Fourth council: 1t !ashmir !undal#an$) in * 1D under Vasumitra !ing was !anishka) Vi2e<Chairman was 1shwaghosha$. Di#ided Buddhism into (ahayana and &inayana se2ts. Buddist Literature: >n Pali language. Vinaya Pitaka:  0ules o' dis2i line in the Buddhist monasteries. Sutta Pitaka: Largest) 2ontains 2olle2tion o' Buddhas sermons. Abhidhamma Pitaka: ? lanation o' the hiloso hi2al rin2i les o' the Buddhist religion  Newspaper ournals Newspaper/Journal Founder/Editor Bengal +a@ette,*:;$ >ndias 'irst news a er$A.!.&ikki!esariB.+.Tilak(aharattaB.+.TilakSudharak+.!.+okhale1mrita Ba@ar PatrikaSisir !umar +hosh and (otilal +hoshVande (ataram1urobindo +hosh%ati#e  inionV.%.(andalik!a#i#a2han SudhaBhartendu &arish2handra0ast +o'tar =irst news a er in +u/arati$Dadabhai %aoro/i%ew >ndia 7eekly$Bi in Chandra PalStatesman0obert !night&induVir 0agha#a2harya and +.S.1iyarSandhyaB.B.8 adhyayaVi2har Lahiri!rishnashastri Chi lunkar&indu Patriot+irish Chandra +hosh later &arish Chandra (ukher/i$Som Prakash>shwar Chandra Vidyasagar-ugantarBhu endranath Datta and Barinder !umar +hoshBombay Chroni2le=iro@e Shah (ehta&industan(.(.(al#iya(ooknayakB.0.1mbedkarComrade(ohammed 1liTah@ib<ul<1khlaSir Syyed 1hmed !han1l<&ilal1bdul !alam 1@ad1l<Balagh1bdul !alam 1@ad>nde endent(otilal %ehruPun/abiLala La/ at 0ai%ew >ndia Daily$1nnie BesantCommonweal1nnie BesantPrata +anesh Shankar Vidyarthissays in >ndian 2onomi2s(.+.0anadeSam#ad !aumudi Bengali$0am (ohan 0oy(irat<ul<1khbar0am (ohan 0oy 'irst Persian news a er$>ndian (irrorDe#endra %ath Tagore%a# Aee#an(.!.+andhi  -oung >ndia(.!.+andhi&ari/an(.!.+andhiPrabudha BharatSwami Vi#ekananda8dbodhanaSwami Vi#ekananda>ndian So2ialistShyam/i !rishna VermaTalwar in Berlin$Birendra %ath Chatto adhyaya=ree &industan in Van2ou#er$Tarak %ath Das&industan Times!.(.Pannikar!ranti(ira/kar) Aoglekar) +hate  Viceroys ! #ndia Lord Cannin$ %&'() * &')+,: ã The last +o#ernor +eneral and the 'irst Vi2eroy. ã (utiny took la2e in his time. ã n %o#) ,:5:) the rule assed on to the 2rown. ã 7ithdrew Do2trine o' La se. ã The 8ni#ersities o' Cal2utta) Bombay and (adras were established in ,:5*. ã >ndian Coun2ils 12t was assed in ,:6,. Lord -l$in %&')+ * &').,Lord Lawrence %&')/ * &')0,: ã Telegra hi2 2ommuni2ation was o ened with uro e. ã &igh Courts were established at Cal2utta) Bombay and (adras in ,:65. ã ? anded 2anal works and railways. ã Created the >ndian =orest de artment. Lord 1ayo %&')0 * &'2+,: ã Started the ro2ess o' 'inan2ial de2entrali@ation in >ndia. ã stablished the 0a/kot 2ollege at !athiarwar and (ayo College at 1/mer 'or the >ndian rin2es. ã =or the 'irst time in >ndian history) a 2ensus was held in ,:*,. ã rganised the Statisti2al Sur#ey o' >ndia. ã 7as the only Vi2eroy to be murdered in o''i2e by a Pathan 2on#i2t in the 1ndamans in ,:*. Lord Northbrook %&'2+ * &'2),:Lord Lytton %&'2) * &''3,: ã !nown as the Vi2eroy to re#erse 2hara2ters. ã rganised the +rand Delhi Durbar in ,:** to de2orate ueen Vi2toria with the title o'  !aiser E > E &ind. ã 1rms 12t,:*:$ made it mandatory 'or >ndians to a2uire li2ense 'or arms. ã Passed the in'amous Verna2ular Press 12t ,:*:$. Lord 4ipon %&''3 * &''/,: ã Liberal erson) who sym athi@ed with >ndians. ã 0e eated the Verna2ular Press 12t ,::$ ã Passed the lo2al sel' E go#ernment 12t ,::$ ã Took ste s to im ro#e rimary F se2ondary edu2ation on 7illiam &unter Commissions re2ommendations$. ã The > =a2tory 12t) ,::,) aimed at rohibiting 2hild labour. ã Passed the libert Bill ,::3$ whi2h enabled >ndian distri2t magistrates to try uro ean 2riminals. But this was withdrawn later. Lord 5u erin %&''/ * &''',:
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