C++ Notes

C++ NotesC++ NotesC++ NotesC++ Notes
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  THE ORIGIN OF C++ In 1979, a young engineer at Bell (now AT&T) Labs, Bjarne Stroustrup, started toeperi!ent wit etensions to # to !a$e it a better tool %or i!ple!enting larges'ale proje'ts In t ose days, an aerage proje't 'onsisted o% tens o% t ousands o% lines o% 'ode(L*#) In 19+, seeral !odi%i'ations and etensions ad already been !ade to # wit 'lassesIn t at year, t e na!e -#..- was 'oined /er sin'e t en, t e .. su%%i as be'o!e asynony! %or obje'torientation (Bjarne Stroustrup 'ould ae !ade a %ortune only byregistering .. as a trade!ar$) It was also in t at year t at #.. was %irst used outsideAT&T Labs T e nu!ber o% users was doubling eery %ew !ont s  and so was t enu!ber o% 'o!pilers and etensions to t e languageBetween 19+0 and 19+9, #.. underwent a !ajor re%or! rote'ted !e!bers, prote'tedin eritan'e, te!plates, and a so!ew at 'ontroersial %eature 'alled !ultiple in eritan'ewere added to t e language It was 'lear t at #.. needed to be'o!e standardi2ed OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMINGBASIC INPUT/OUTPUT FUNCTIONS CIN>>:  It is used %or input li$e s'an%( ) in #3443 T is is 'alled insertors COUT>>:  It is used %or output li$e print%( ) in #3443 T is is 'alled eertors KEYWORDSCLASS A #lass is way to bind t e data and its asso'iated %un'tions toget er It allows t e dataand %un'tions to be idden, i% ne'essary, %ro! eternal use 5 en de%ining a 'lass, we are'reating a new abstra't data type t at 'an be treated li$e any ot er builtin data type T e  'lass de'laration des'ribes t e type and s'ope o% its !e!bers T e general %or! o% de'laration is as %ollows6 Synt!:C ## $ ##%n&'(P)*t':)*, ' '$ )t*.n#01n$t*.n '$ )t*.n#21, *$:)*, ' '$ )t*.n01n$t*.n '$ )t*.n3 T e 'lass de'laration is si!ilar to stru't de'laration T e body o% a 'lassis en'losedwit in bra'es and ter!inated by a se!i'olon T e 'lass body 'ontains t e de'laration o% ariables and %un'tions T ese %un'tions and ariables are 'olle'tiely $nown as 'lass!e!bers ASSESSORS PRI4ATE:  T e #lass !e!bers t at ae been de'lared as priate 'an be a''essed only wit in t e 'lass PUBLIC:  T e #lass !e!bers t at ae been de'lared as publi' 'an be a''essed outside t e 'lass also PROTECTED : li$e priate e'ept t at deried 'lasses ae a''ess to t e! too Try not to use t is  it 'an elp per%or!an'e but it brea$s en'apsulation E!&2 ':5*n$ 1'6*.#t)'&78>C ## *t'&( *nt n1&,') // 2)*t' ,y '01 t0 .t $.#t21, *$:.* 9'tt *nt ; 0 .t ,<.* 21tt.*<($.1t66=n1&,'):=66n1&,')66=n=$.1t66=$.#t:=66$.#t66=n=33  .* *t'&::9'tt*nt ; 0 .t ,<(n1&,') ?$.#t?,3*nt &*n <(*t'& !$.1t 66=n O,@'$t !=66=n=!79'tt; 7<!721tt <*t'& y$.1t66=n O,@'$t y=66=n=y79'tt;7<y721tt <)'t1)n 3 OBJECT *bje'ts are t e basi' run ti!e entity in an obje'toriented syste! T ey !ay represent a person, a pla'e, a ban$ a''ount or any t at t e progra! as to andle T ey !ay alsorepresent user de%ined data su' as e'tors, ti!e, and lists 5 en a progra! is ee'uted, t e obje't intera'ted by sending !essages to one anot er E!&2 ':C ## '&2(C8) n&'0 .t 9'21, *$:.* 9'tt.*<($.1t66=ENTER NAME:=$*n>>n&'$.1t66=ENTER AGE:=$*n>>9'3.* 21tt .*<($.1t66=NAME:=66n&'$.1t66=AGE:=669'33*nt &*n <('&2 ''79'tt <  '721tt <)'t1)n 3 CONSTRUCTORS A 'onstru'tor is used to initiali2e an obje't A de%ault 'onstru'tor is one t at 'an beino$ed wit out any argu!ents I% t ere is no userde'lared 'onstru'tor %or a 'lass, and i% t e 'lass does not 'ontain const  or re%eren'e data !e!bers, t e i!ple!entationi!pli'itly de'lares a de%ault 'onstru'tor %or it 5*n$ 1'6*.#t)'&78>C ## *nt'9')(*nt &;nP1, *$:*nt'9')*nt; *nt< //$.n#t)1$t.) '$ )'4.* *#2 y <($.1t66=&?=66&66=n=$.1t66=n?=66n66=n=33*nt'9')::*nt'9')*nt !; *nt y< //$.n#t)1$t.) '0*n'(&?!n?y3Int &*n <(*nt'9') *nt;<*nt'9') *nt?*nt'9');<$.1t66=n OBJECT=66=n=*nt7*#2 y <$.1t66=n OBJECT=66=n=*nt7*#2 y <)'t1)n 3 T e progra!!er did not de'lare a 'onstru'tor in 'lass C   an i!pli'it de%ault 'onstru'tor was de'lared and de%ined by t e i!ple!entation in order to 'reate an instan'e o% 'lass C.  
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