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CAD and Development 2 - Part 3

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CAD and Development 2 - Part 3
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  0esigning arts or Fine-blanked arts cost more han conventionally lankedparts-for the first few. After hat, he reduction nsecondary achining ssociated ith ine blankingbegins o pay off. An additional enetit Fine.bl;kedpans are stronger han hose onventionally lanked. lvarh.r bt.ntld from OtS rt..t t. 0.230 n.thick and 3.9 in, in dhncta( lolanncaaaru a0.0025 n. Ramovd t bul| onwlrhar t. th ia tia only rcondrry FonMs-\Dlth losc tolctrnca . . . coln , rtnbo3sas,or.pedorate . . . rcducas naad for sacondaty DlE:chlntng ._. cutJ untt colt Jt youte tooH;8 to e.proce$ that har thcle chanctari flc elong rithtlr e. charectcdatlcl allociatad eith convanfloDalonn|<|ng, ake a look at llm blanldnr.. Flno blanldng k a r -llnenoat oll convrnttonalDranKmg_ n phlch rnatal psn er punchad romooll or shaet tock. Slrnilaritta batsecn thala fi9oFocesse i.lclude tha typar ot Detadal thlt clnDa lonrad; ltr grltlcrll natarlrh thrt can ba coldr.orfieo can atlo b. flne blEhked, Table t. Thror erance betsacr: fltra and convandonal blank-hg li. in thc fldlhed colt ard rhechantcat DropeFgas of the part . Utor lkr toart Clrcular psrtr up to 16 ln, In dt|rn, or lqulrrpsrtr up to tB ln. crn b€ flne blsnked. Tha nin MARIO NOSEAIZOPratld.ntModorch Die Corp,Mineola, N. Y.Guid. t3 btant.d rom lO3S st..t, O.t8g n,tnick, lol.ranc . on loca0on nddaam.t.r of hot. ar. 0.0004 In. tbr th.lmall hol. .nd 10.002 in. ior th.Ptrt lor l.tch mcchrntrm t bt.nk.dfrom 1020 Bt .t that i3 0.325 n. ttiick.Lcngth 's 1.35 n. lot.rrnces on hotediamltfi are +0.001, -0.003 in. t05.  ttxt.BrAx|(tD PAnlS mum natelial thtckness s 0.030 n., and }le max.imum htckn€ss s 0.5 n. Tlle tlrlckneGs irllmum(no fector n conventional lanklng) s need.al opermit an npingement ing to hold he part to beblanled, Fl8. .llcr Cbr lolcroncar?'Fine-blanking olerances n llnear dirnensiots tI in. or less can be a0.00O3 n.: for dimensionsovcr I in.. =0.0005-in. oleranc* can be held.Tolerances n hole diam€tels epand n the ma.terial and hickncls.In teel o 0.187ln. hick, oler-aDce as small as *0.0002 n. can bc achievadilor lteel thicker ban 0.187 n,, 10.0005 n. tolel.Ince ate piactlcal.Th.re arc no limitatlons n baxlmum hole ize :howcver, practicel mlnimum hole clianeteB ar summarized elow: ?6le l -{eco;iraded mol.dol3 for:' '. . llna blqnking Itilo Bol. Dbr/stocl luct .rr 1008 hrcr8h 1024i &ft .nd N h .d1030 lmuth 1095j nly in lully an.n .led, lDb.rcidlz.d cordition{140, {140, 8630. nd E640; l flllyaM..l.d, Dr.f.r.blt | rDlt.roidiz.dTr?G 302, 30,1, 305, .nd 40t {nolh..t-tr..t bl.); tyD.r 301, 303, J00,316, 3 t?, 403, 410, a2i h lully m-solt, t/. hfd, N [r d, X h[dTlrh |,dntAll H h.rdne &, (not h.rt.tLrt-i .rtd O l20la . d 2024,''O t.DDq onl* 60€l r'd ?0?5 Tld T{)Solt or roll h.rl.n..l, not h..t-soltNot b.lt{cNol lln th.n 8% .oDD.r t. l D.dtnSpace Batw.en Hola* Minlrnun wall wldth de.pen& oD part contiguratlon rnd 6toak thlcktar .ln most cales, wall wldth should be equal o at, leEst elf h€ naterial hlckne , Flg, 2c.Flattelr .nd Edge Enkh: Flatness l 0.001 n./lD. can be expectld l parts ar€ blanked ron sheetor 6ttip materials. Whe[ parts are bhnkrd trom 'l.d.d d..l rld br.r .E no . €Dt .rd6d h..ru .p|d blllLd tro'r t ar do rot h.v. lnootl .d8.r,lPlllotyt. rr.,tr .hould ba .wlu.r.d 9r'or to tull...rl. coil rtock. flatnc ot lbout 0,002 n./lr. csn beobtalncd.Fige lurfaca tlnt,h depandr on meterlal compG tlon aDd 3tock tl ckncai The tlble brlow liststyptcel flnilhas lor verlour thlckn$se of pa.tsblanked fron h.lt-he.d AISI 1008 eel. Bhili|lo Pdrci t225 liZ flflIfllflfinmll ffidilt]lillillilllflhm ie. I -Codprisn orconv.rdonal .rd lin..bl,.n*ina ie.s4. Action of .ih. idpin8.oc.tlrtc 2 d coua|.rDucn r..idt io clot. - tol.Eftep.ra with r.liriv.lvrdmth c4.r ( o dieI06  -f- I Fir. z-D.ri8I linit iou of finabtft.d p.r .Flnbh 0.030.0100>o.ti7 l€-20 Parts blanked rom materlel such aa alurninurnand brass lloys rormally have bette edge ln.ishcs han Bteel art3.Dle Roll .nd Edge Squrencr : Dle rolt, Ft8.2b, ls largely a functloa of rnaterial tblcloe$ and6noothness of the part perimeter. OD rtralghtlihes aDd srnootl curves, le rolt i3 $ually llmitedto l0% of the matedal hlck ess. Hor ever. onshnn noints (15_ or less). dl6 roll cen be as muchas :3oA ot the naterial thickn€ss.Dcviation rom edge squarenes3 or parts up toya-in. hick is usually betveer 0.0005 nd 0.001iD. On parts over %-in, hick, t may become .002' Coft€rs Sharp comeru contribute to lncreaseddi€ roll and, n extreme ases, an even cause lebreak. €liminatirg he sdvantage f fine blanking.Minirhum adii of outside comeri should b€ etleast 07o of stock hicknerEi adll of inside cor-ners should be at least 5% of the tldckness, Flg. 2c.ColDh& Fordhg, E[rbo$ln& Extrudin$ Fine.blarking car be used o perforete, oin, orm, em-boss, an.l extrude parts n a sinSle press Btroke.In genernl, hete aae no limitations on tlle com-ple:'rity f embossing alts. Coinirg s subiect othe sarne imitations as hole diameteE. Formine(bending' should not exceed 0o, and tlle heighiof a step should ot exceed hree stock hicknesses,Fig,2d. o 2,000 4,000 5.ooo 3OOIun .l ot PodrPi& 3-Corr <@r..iro,| of corv.ndodt .nd fin. bl .t.it:8 J9 r_ rrpiol bLrt.d p.ri Toolina (d. fo. tincDr .llnt r. ap4 .rEd br u, , r.Fr.r.rrt @li.[ cnn Wh.l Dc.. lf Co.t?ToolinS osts or tiDe blanking re usually hlSherthan firose for conventlonal blanklhg. Thus, someminimum nunber of parts must be produced e-fore the cost edvshtage due to the ellmination ofsecondary machining begins to accrue, Fig. 3. Aspaft c.tnplexity incfeas€s, he cost ad ,antage offine blankirg also ilcr€ases; the cost-vs-numberof parts curve for conventional blanking will bemuch 6teepei.Another cost-related actor tiat inlluences thechoice between ine blanking and conventionalblanking is qrhetbe or not the paft Fill supporlthe required o8d. Colvendonal blanking tends toweaken parts arould their perimeJer due to thedle b.eak. Equivalent ine-blanked arts do nothave die breaks, nd hus are sttonger, n, Z A.1lat z a.o5/ t07  SPINNINC & I'LoW TlJXl,llNc I SpinningMetalrorking by spinning is a,versatile process fo 6haping sheethaterials. It is a universal uethod foi producins .t.pe .orro platr sectionale circular. The process is generally usea tor ;mpte shapes shere thequatrtities_do dot justify coEpreh€neive press too:ing, flared shapes wherepress tooling would be difficult or iopoisible, , _ ii..ii shapes whereseS'ented tooling can be utilised and iarge *oikpi.c s toi t,trictr othet.for'sof fabrication rould involve.ptohibitive iapitat'-o is.---Spinoiog is ,rotDornally applied to oass groduction althougir there are so'e exceptioDsto this rule (eg kitchen utensils). spinii g oiL-iJ cilri a out ondachine tools of codv€ntional design, either p i fiy naiutactureltor ttrepurpose o 6iEply adapted cenrle lathes, utili;itr8 to;1ing that is siupleand relatively inexpensive. 1o, tur[ing, whilst at fitst 6ithr very si-oila , ha6 Eany fundaeetrtal 9ift::::: : both ir principle and application. 'rij, i-iiru .r t Ene dr.rrerent concepts of spinning end f10v turning. rt should be notedthat spinninS ie essentially a fotEiDg process witi no significant chantein section-rhickness, wheress, shear sfinning i . frogr 3i., rorgirrgoperarioa irvotvilrg cotrs dersble oetai dispiaceoeni.'- --- -Th. technique of_ spinning is a lanually opeleted plocess where E blankof r.larivety thin ducri.le oetal-is acied'up n il; -;1i ;;_ osed or rolt. tool, sooetiEes lever assisted, ia o.aer to' persu J -ti l t .l f toadouoe the shape of the chuck-o forDer to pioduce irr i ii a corEponent. A scheoatic vie . of aanual erd l.vei . i r;; ti;ni;; iJ-s-io n iu rig. z. Siaple.Ehapec can usually be EadG-t th on€ pags, riril6t intersrage aqr.alilg ia ueed or the loore difficqlt i ri r s'-.i - ip i * r, p.r. FolEeta ceu be DAnufactutad floE Boftwood, hrrduood, plastics l€Eirretes, aluoioir:o, easr iron o 6teeLr ttre crroi e'aeleiJiii' i i-iii a .y arra ecorolrice. spilnins rools ere usurlly of ,;*d:;;s;.;; ioir , typ llusrleted in Fig, 3 uounred a lisid't;;e;;. - iiJ-uJi ii'r,,u i..n., iospiaafug ia essenrisl atd sorips ena-taffowa-aie *:.1' fi-. .i.'' 1o* turEing(Sheer spinoing, powet roll f,oroing, power spinniag, rotary ertlusion,hydro spinninS).Itre coopotrerlts of a ftorr tulning rethe are siuilar to those of a 6tanararaltethe, but are Buch 6tuldier. Rolleti . :iii.J- to-ti.-liois sliaes, anathese shape he nork ageitrst a lotetinS ,.1i4;;; ;; ;i: -' -For irregula shapes, the cross. slides-are ttacaE conrrolled. lrai slideand cro6s slides are senerarry hydraulicalty opJi.i i-iJ liJl .r.n 3;i.*irf;;: involved. Marerial lo.o ;- . -;;;i;;.;;;-ii=a p a .,'i,,s Ploduct ralge froD sDalt iteEs Dade ia larSe qaantities (eg EeteltrlblerE) to lerte cottpodcBts (aeroapace applicationg) iq sEall quantiti.r.llar*s es large ao 5 E in diaEeter a[d plate atock up to 25 q thickca be powe spun vithost applyi 8 heat. llhen heated, blalrks es thick a 14Oqhave beeo auccessfully spuo.I,lon turning ie a gevete cold working opelation aad has a Eerked effectotr the Dechalical propertie6 of the nork Detal.craitr size i6 refined and alrisotropy le6ults.Surface finiEh is usuelly good alld ao additional finishiag is usuallyrequired.StreEgth and hardiess increase ald ductility decleases.
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