Health & Medicine

Cannula And Infection

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1. Major Threat To Medical Profession and Humankind 2. Braunula <ul><li>First Cannula invented in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly…
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  • 1. Major Threat To Medical Profession and Humankind
  • 2. Braunula <ul><li>First Cannula invented in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly accepted by medical profession </li></ul><ul><li>Technique of introduction not evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Used in USA & Europe since 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of Staphylococcal infection in tandem increased with this device </li></ul><ul><li>Average attempts required is 2-3 / patient </li></ul>
  • 3. Types of Cannula <ul><li>Neonatal cannulae </li></ul><ul><li>Straight Cannulae </li></ul><ul><li>Winged Cannulae </li></ul><ul><li>Wing with port </li></ul><ul><li>Winged with stop cork </li></ul>All these cannula do the same job
  • 4. Cannula Insertion Technique <ul><li>Wash hands with soap and water </li></ul><ul><li>Wear un-sterile glove </li></ul><ul><li>Identify good vein to cannulate </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare skin of patient </li></ul><ul><li>Insert cannula needle through skin </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture blood vessel </li></ul>
  • 5. Common Problems <ul><li>Needle Bends when pressure is applied from the top </li></ul>
  • 6. Flash-Back <ul><li>Blood noticed in Collecting chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Stop moving cannula needle forward </li></ul><ul><li>Failure rate high </li></ul>
  • 7. Failure Rate Increase <ul><li>Puncture sites </li></ul><ul><li>Pain and discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading bacterial infections </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of wasted cannula </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital contaminated waste </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Help bacteria to colonise and multiply </li></ul>
  • 8. How Cannula Spread Infection
  • 9. “ This is Not a Problem” <ul><li>1996-2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Hep : 9 infected of 997 exposure </li></ul><ul><li>HIV : 1 infected of 551 exposure </li></ul><ul><li>16% Healthcare of 35,000 sustained sharp injury </li></ul>
  • 10. Ported Cannula <ul><li>Major cause for spreading bacterial infection </li></ul>
  • 11. Ported Cannula <ul><li>50% of patients develop Bacteraemia </li></ul><ul><li>17 million used in UK </li></ul><ul><li>Banned in USA & Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria colonize in the port </li></ul><ul><li>Must be banned in UK Hospitals </li></ul>
  • 12. MRSA Infections in Europe
  • 13. Antibiotic Resistant Statistics Annual cost in Canada $200 - $250 million Cost of MRSA infection in USA/Year 3.2 - 4.2 Billion $ Cost of MRSA in Scotland / Year £183 million Cost of Skin Testing in Scotland next year £16 million Cost of deep cleaning hospitals in UK £2 Billion Clinical drug (11 are given IV) trials 13 Drugs C diff death in 2006 in UK, up 72% 6,480 Canadians died of MRSA 2,300 Death of MRSA in the USA in 2005 19,000 Death from MRSA in UK, 2006. 1,652 Health People carrying MRSA on their skin 3 out of 10 Patients who get infections in UK 1 in 10
  • 14. Bactrial Threat High <ul><li>Increased practical procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hand washing technique </li></ul><ul><li>Antiseptic skin solution not effective </li></ul><ul><li>Use of un-sterile gloves </li></ul><ul><li>48% Healthcare workers are carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly adopting bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>17% Doctors have adequate knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians ignoring this threat </li></ul>
  • 16. This Proved our Hypothesis
  • 18. Major Problem
  • 19. Hand Wash <ul><li>Bacteria are now resistant to Biocide </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses / Doctors do not observe drying time </li></ul><ul><li>Use hand wash gel only when water and soap are not available </li></ul><ul><li>Low concentrated wash increase bacteria hand </li></ul><ul><li>Washing more than 10 times increase colony count in hands </li></ul><ul><li>Women have more bacteria in their hands </li></ul><ul><li>Quick swipe of skin with spirit not remove bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>High concentrated chemicals produce dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Biocides kill good germs and increase resistant germs growth </li></ul><ul><li>More than ten bacteria are now resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Simple puncture site with needle can get infected </li></ul>
  • 20. Infected Injection Site
  • 21. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Threatening Us <ul><li>Enterococcus faecium </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><li>Klebsiella species </li></ul><ul><li>Acinetobacter baumannii </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </li></ul><ul><li>Enterobacter species </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus Pnemococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Meningococcal Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Gonococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul>
  • 22. Please Stop This Happen Again?
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