CE2251 soil mechanics notes.pdf

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SOIL MECHANICS SUBJECT CODE : CE 42 EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING m Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12 c o u l. p a ij n Department of Civil Engineering e CE 42- SOIL MECH
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SOIL MECHANICS SUBJECT CODE : CE 42 EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12 Department of Civil Engineering CE 42- SOIL MECHANICS Lecture notes Prepared by BEULA ANGEL S.G & A.PONNIAHRAJU  SOIL MECHANICS SUBJECT CODE : CE 42 EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG CE 42 SOIL MECHANICS OBJECTIVE After undergoing this course, the student gains adequate knowledge on engineering properties of soil. 1. INTRODUCTION 10  Nature of Soil - Problems with soil - phase relation - sieve analysis - sedimentation analysis  –   Atterberg limits - classification for engineering purposes - BIS Classification system - Soil compaction - factors affecting compaction  –   field compaction methods and monitoring. 2. SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW 8 Soil water  –   Various forms  –   Influence of clay minerals  –   Capillary rise  –   Suction - Effective stress concepts in soil  –   Total, neutral and effective stress distribution in soil - Permeability  –    Darcy’s  Law- Permeability measurement in the laboratory  –   quick sand condition - Seepage  –   Laplace Equation - Introduction to flow nets  –   properties and uses - Application to simple problems. 3. STRESS DISTRIBUTION, COMPRESSIBILITY AND SETTLEMENT 10 Stress distribution in soil media  –   Boussinesque formula  –   stress due to line load and Circular and rectangular loaded area - approximate methods - Use of influence charts  –   Westergaard equation for point load - Components of settlement - Immediate and consolidation settlement - Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory  –   governing differential equation  –   laboratory consolidation test  –   Field consolidation curve  –   NC and OC clays - problems on final and time rate of consolidation 4. SHEAR STRENGTH 9 Shear strength of cohesive and cohesionless soils - Mohr - Coulomb failure theory  –  Saturated soil - Strength parameters - Measurement of shear strength, direct shear, Triaxial compression, UCC and Vane shear tests  –  Types of shear tests based on drainage and their applicability - Drained and undrained behaviour of clay and sand  –   Stress path for conventional triaxial test. 5. SLOPE STABILITY 8 Slope failure mechanisms - Modes - Infinite slopes - Finite slopes  –   Total and effective stress analysis - Stability analysis for purely cohesive and C-   soils - Method of slices  –   Modified Bishop’s method - Friction circle method - stability number  –   problems  –   Slope protection measures. TOTAL: 45 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS: 1. Punmia P.C., “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, Laximi Publications Pvt. Ltd., New  Delhi, 1995. 2. Gopal Ranjan and Rao A.S.R., “Basic and applied soil mechanics”, New Age  International Publishers, New Delhi, 2000. 3. Venkatramaiah, C. “Geotechnical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, New  Delhi, 1995 4. Khan I.H., “A text book of Geotechnical Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,  1999. REFERENCES 1. Coduto, D.P., “Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices”, Prentice Hall of India  Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002. 2. McCarthy D.F., “Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Basic Geotechniques”,  Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2002. 3. Das, B.M, “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, (fifth edition), Thomas Books/ cole,  2002 4. Muni Budhu, “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, John Willey & Sons, Inc, New York,  2000.  SOIL MECHANICS SUBJECT CODE : CE 42 EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG UNIT-I INTRODUCTION SOIL AND SOIL ENGINEERING   * The term Soil has various meanings, depending upon the general field in which it is being considered.   *To a Pedologist ... Soil is the substance existing on the earth's surface, which grows and develops plant life.   *To a Geologist ..... Soil is the material in the relative thin surface zone within which roots occur, and all the rest of the crust is grouped under the term ROCK irrespective of its hardness.   *To an Engineer .... Soil is the un-aggregated or un-cemented deposits of mineral and/or organic particles or fragments covering large portion of the earth's crust.   ** Soil Mechanics is one of the youngest disciplines of Civil Engineering involving the study of soil, its behavior and application as an engineering material. *According to Terzaghi (1948): Soil Mechanics is the application of laws of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with sediments and other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the mechanical and chemical disintegration of rocks regardless of whether or not they contain an admixture of organic constituent.     * Geotechnical Engineering ..... Is a broader term for Soil Mechanics.   * Geotechnical Engineering contains:   - Soil Mechanics (Soil Properties and Behavior) - Soil Dynamics (Dynamic Properties of Soils, Earthquake Engineering, Machine Foundation) - Foundation Engineering (Deep & Shallow Foundation)   - Pavement Engineering (Flexible & Rigid Pavement)   - Rock Mechanics (Rock Stability and Tunneling)   - Geosynthetics (Soil Improvement)  SOIL MECHANICS SUBJECT CODE : CE 42 EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGG DEPT OF CIVIL ENGG Soil Formation  * Soil material is the product of rock    * The geological process that produce soil is WEATHERING  (Chemical and Physical).   * Variation in Particle size and shape depends on:   - Weathering Process   - Transportation Process   * Variation in Soil Structure Depends on:   - Soil Minerals   - Deposition Process * Transportation and Deposition   What type of soils are usually produced by the different weathering & transportation process - Boulders   - Gravel Cohesionless   - Sand (Physical) - Silt Cohesive   - Clay (Chemical)   * These soils can be - Dry   - Saturated - Fully   - Partially   * Also they have different shapes and textures

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