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Cell Biology Lecture Notes

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  Cell Biology Lecture NotesIntroduction: A. Definition of a cell : fundamental structural and functional unit of all living organismsB. Characteristics of cells :1) Contain highly organized molecular and biochemical systems and are used to store information2) Use energy3) Caable of movement!) ense environmental changes#) Can dulicate $transfer genetic information to offsring)%) Caable of self&regulation&'ost cells are microscoic $invisible to the na(ed eye) and thus a microscoe is needed to vie* most cells.C) +istory:&,iscovery of the cell follo*ed by the develoment of the microscoeA.1%%#&-obert +oo(e& observed cells from the fruiting bodies of fungi B.Anton van ee*enhoe(& observed a variety of cells and called them /animalcules/ C.103s&heodor ch*ann and 'atthias chleiden develoed the cell theory& Cell Theory  states:1.All living organisms are comosed of cells 2.Cells are the functional units of living organisms 3.Cells arise from ree4isting cells via division,)  Louis Pasteur &develoed the theory of sontaneous generation that is that cells could develo from non&living matter &Also *or(ed on roblem associated *ith the fermentation of 5rench *ine&10#6&develoed a artial sterilization rocess called asteurization& involves heating at a moderate temeratures to reduce the number of living microorganisms7) 10%# -Mendel &demonstrated that cellular traits $henotyes) *ere inherited& eed shae and color in garden eas& 8amed /5ather of 9enetics/ 5) 1061& Johan Freidrick Miescher &isolated nucleic acids from cells /nuclein/    9) 100& ! lt#an &urified nucleic acids +) 1!!& $s%ald &ery  Colin 'aceod and 'acyn 'cCarty& &,emonstrated that ,8A *as the heredity molecule&,8A could transform bacterial cells;) 1#2&Alfred 'ershey  and 'artha Chase &also demonstrated that ,8A *as the heredity molecule &-adioactive ,8A from a virus *as able to infect and transform bacterial cells<) 1#3&<ames (atson  and 5rancis Crick  &develoed the 3&, structure of ,8A =) 1#0&'atte* Meselson  and 5ran( )tahl &demonstrated that ,8A relicated by a semi conservative method) 1%1& Brenner* Jaco+* Meselson &discovered -8A ') 1%%& Niren+erg  and ,horana &elucidated the chemical nature of the genetic code  8) 162&163& Berg* Boyer* and  Cohen & discovered gene cloning >) 16#& il+ert  and )anger &develoed chemical techni?ues to raidly se?uence ,8A  Cell )tructure: ;.'ost cells are microscoic and cannot be seen by the na(ed eye. ;;.'icroscoes *ere develoed to visualize cells. ;;;.-esolution is the minimum distance *here 2 ob@ects can be visually searated&Unresolved&artially resolved&-esolved&,eends on:a.avelength of light  b.-efractive inde4 of the medium c.>f the light&he na(ed eye can resolve t*o searate ob@ects searated by 2 um'etric system:&1 meter  3.3 feet 1 (m  1 3 m 1cm  1 &2  m 1mm  1 &3  m 1um  1 &%  m 1nm  1 &  m 1 A  1 &1  m 1m  1 &12  m  ;D. ight microscoe:&Can resolve t*o ob@ects 1&2 nm aart $including cells and large sub cellular organelles) &Uses different light sources and atterns of image formationa.Bright field d) differential interference  b.,ar( field e) fluorescence c) hase contrastD. 7lectron 'icroscoe:&Uses a beam of electrons $e & ) rather than light as an illumination sourceA. ransmission 7lectron 'icroscoe .T/M0 &7lectrons forming the image focused through the secimen& hort *avelength of e &  beam imroves the resolution of 7' to # A $.#nm)&Can resolve small sub cellular organelles and large roteinsB. canning 7lectron 'icroscoe .)/M0 &Used to e4amine surfaces of cells or isolated cellular structures&e &  beam /scans/ the secimen&-esolution # to 1 nm Prokaryotic Cells & small and rimitive bacteria and blue&green algae $cyanobacteria)9ree(: robefore (aryonnucleus&ac(s secialized internal membrane&bound comartments (no*n as organelles&Cell membrane& functions in transort the movement of substances in and out of the cell and in energy roduction $brea(do*n of large molecules hotosynthesis)&Cell *all& gives structural strength $rigidity) to the cell&Casule& @elly&li(e substance *hich rotects the cell *all from environmental damage&8ucleiod& contains a single circular molecule of ,8A $stores genetic information)&Cytolasm& region surrounding the nucleiod and *ithin the cell membrane&Contains ribosomes and -8A $site of rotein synthesis)&Dacuole $vesicles)$blue&green algae)&site of hotosynthesis $storage)&5lagellum& rotein fiber the functions in movement  /ukaryotic Cell & $eutrue (aryonnucleus)1.ossesses a comle4 membrane system 2.+as a true nucleus 3.,istinct membrane&bound intracellular comartments called organelles&8ucleus& dar(&staining body *ithin the cell by enclosed an intracellular membrane called the nuclear enveloe &8uclear enveloe contains ores *hich are filled *ith a ring of roteins called annulus&Contains ,8A in the form of chromatin fibers&,8A is linear $linear ,8A E roteins  chromosome)&8ucleolus& a cell organelle in the nucleus that disaears during art of cell division. Contains r-8A genes&8ucleus also contains -8A $m-8A r-8A and t-8A)&ranscrition& conversion of genetic information from ,8A to -8A occurs in the nucleus&,8A relication&dulication of genetic material& Cyto1las# : ma@or ortion of the rotolasmic substance *ithin the cell membranea.-ibosomes&a cytolasmic article that contains -8A and rotein and is involved in the rocess of  rotein synthesis&ranslocation&rocess *hich ta(es lace in the cytolasm and converts genetic information in -8A into  roteins &-ibosomes can either be freely susended in the cytolasm or attached to intracellular membranesa.7ndolasmic reticulum $7-)& a net*or( of intracellular membranes *here secreting roteins are synthesized&-ough 7-& the 7- E ribosomes& mooth7-& the 7- *ithout ribosomes& 5unction
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