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  MODULE - 6 The Physical setting of India  23Climate of IndiaNotes GEOGRAPHY  In the previous lesson, we have noted the shape and size of our country along withits latitudinal extent. Not only its physiographic divisions are diverse but also far more contrasting in nature. Each one of these factors has an impact on climaticconditions of India, be it temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind system or pre-cipitation.In this lesson, we will study regional variations in the climatic conditions of India. Asearch will be made to identify a series of factors responsible for these climaticvariations both over space and time. A cycle of seasons would also merit our attention. As our climate is labelled “a monsoon type of climate” we would studythe basic concept of monsoons and their typical charateristics. Since, in our coun-try, the climatic variations depends more on rainfall rather than temperature, wewould devote some time to study distribution of rainfall. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, you will be able to:  explain with suitable examples the climatic variations in India (both seasonaland spatial);  name various factors which influence the climate of different parts of India;  explain the concept of monsoon and the way it is caused;  discuss the typical characteristics of monsoons;  state the climatic conditions during different seasons; 17.1 CLIMATIC VARIATIONS IN INDIA You have studied the shape, size, location and latitudinal extent of India. You havealso noted the sharply contrasting relief features of India. This has created regionaldiversities in climatic conditions. The climatic conditions of southern India are a bit 17CLIMATE OF INDIA  MODULE - 6 The Physical setting of India  24Climate of IndiaNotes GEOGRAPHY  different from those of the northern parts with respect to temperature, rainfall and commencement as well as duration of different seasons. Now, let us have a closer look at these climatic variations. During June, the northwestern plains experience high temperature around 45°C when areas of Rajasthandesert record day temperatures around 55°C, while the temperatures around Gulmarg or Pahalgam in Kashmir are hardly around 20°C. Similarly, in the monthof December, the people of Kargil or Dras(in Jammu & Kashmir) experience biting cold because the night temperatures drop to -40°C, while the inhabitants of Thiruvananthapuram experience temperatures around 27° C (Table 17.1)The range of temperature increases as one moves away from coastal areas tointerior parts of the country. As a result, the people living along Konkan and Malabar coasts do not experience extremes of temperatures or marked change in seasons.On the other hand, people living in north western parts of India, experience sharpseasonal contrasts.The diversity in rainfall distribution is equally striking. Mausimram, near Cherrapunjiin Meghalaya, receives about 1080 cm of rainfall annually, while Jaisalmer in thedesert of Rajasthan receives only 20 cm of annual rainfall. The northeastern partsand the coastal plains of Orissa and West Bengal experience spells of heavy rainduring July and August while the Coromondel coast of Tamilnadu receive verymeager rain during these months (Table 17.1)Have a close look at Figure17.1 and 17.2 which show the dates of onset and withdrawal of Southwest monsoons respectively. This will help you to understand the difference in the duration of rainy season in different parts of India. You willcome to the conclusion that the duration of rainy season is the shortest in North-west India and longest in the South and North eastern parts of the country.  The shape, size, location, latitudinal extent of the country and its contrast-ing relief have resulted in diverse climatic conditions in different parts of India.  Climatic diversity is reflected in regional variations in temperature, amountof rainfall and commencement as well as duration of seasons. INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.1 1.Name two places in India - one experiencing the highest and the other thelowest temperatures.(a) ______________________(b) ______________________ 2.Study the Table 17.1 and answer the following questions:(i)Name the station which has the most equable climate.(ii)Which station has the highest range of temperature ?(iii)Which station has the highest temperature in  MODULE - 6 The Physical setting of India  25Climate of IndiaNotes GEOGRAPHY  (a)February(b) April(c)June(d) August(iv)Name the four most rainy months in India.(a)_________ (b)_________ (c)_________ (d)_________ (v)Name a place in India which has the lowest rainfall. Table 17.1: Mean Monthly Temperature and Rainfall inMajor Meteriological Centres in IndiaT=Temperature (in Celsius) and P=Precipitation (in mm) Station T/PJ.F.M.A.M.J.J.A.S.O.N.D.LehT.-8-7-19101417171260-6P. 108855513138505ShilongT.101116191921212120171310P.1429561462954763593433021883610KolkataT.20222730303029 2929282420P.12283451134290331334253129274DelhiT.141723293435313029212015P.2124131010681861701251429JodhpurT.171925303434312929272218P.5633103110813157322MumbaiT.242424283029272727282725P.42221846561332928665182Mahaba-T.192023252419181818202019leshwarP.545252744025461764686154475PuneT.212326293028252525262321P.31214271071699713076314 NagpurT.222428333532282728272321P.11231716 21222376286185552010BangloreT.2223262727252323 23231920P.97114510771111137164536113ChennaiT.252628313333313130.282625P.4131318384587113119306350135Thiruvana-T.272728292927262627272727nthapurarnP.23213910620835622314613827320675  Fig. 17.1 Onset of Southwest Monsoon MODULE - 6 The Physical setting of India  26Climate of India GEOGRAPHY 
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