Change Management

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   BOLTON BUSINESS SCHOOL Course level: MBA   Module title: MANAGERIAL CHALLENGES OF CHANGES Module code: MBA4106. Level HE7   Credits 12  Assignment title: Critical evaluation of Schein’s Model  Date issued Date due in Extension date agreed?    Actual submission date 10 Oct 2014   28 Nov 2014.   Interim mark awarded (This mark is subject to internal and external moderation) For Student Use: Student Number: 1209780 IMPORTANT: 1. All completed assignments must be accompanied by this front cover sheet when submitted. 2. Students are required to submit their work through Moodle via TurnitUK to ensure the srcinality of their work. 3. All references must be fully cited in Harvard notation. 4. Plagiarism in any form will result in severe penalties. 5. Any late or non-submissions should be preceded by completion of a Mitigating Circumstances Form, or, an Extension Request Form (up to 5 days only) available from CIC 6. Students who fail to submit assessments by the specified date (without an extension being granted or without accepted Mitigating Circumstances) will be subject to the following penalties:   Up to 5 calendar days late = 10 marks subtracted but if the assignment would normally gain a pass mark, then the final mark to be no lower than 40%.   Up to 10 calendar days late = 20 marks subtracted but if the assignment would normally gain a pass mark, then the final mark to be no lower than 40%.   More than 10 calendar days late = 1 mark awarded. Declaration I confirm that I have read the University policy on plagiarism and that the work presented here is my own. I acknowledge that the University uses plagiarism detection software. Student Signature Date  1209780 20 th June, 2014   2 In today’s  fast growing economies, organisations worldwide are confronting more turbulent market and are under the pressure of internal as well as external forces to change and innovation (Alkaya and Hepaktan, 2003). The concept innovation has come to be widely recognised since 2006 (Chesbrough et al., 2006) and several studies have revealed that in order to maximise competitive advantage, organizations should not only conduct effective management for today, but also simultaneously create innovation for sustainable development (Tushman and Nadle, 1986). By understanding its significance, many researchers have established several concepts in relation to innovation with different views including Change Kaleidoscope (Balogun and Hope-Hailey, 1999), Culture Web (Johnson and Scholes, 1998) and Force Field Analysis (Lewin , 1951)… and by taking advantage of the empirical studies, Horn and Brem (2013) has set a foundation for a conceptual framework of innovation which describes most appropriately the strategic directions of TH  –  the largest automobile manufacturer with over twenty subsidiaries and eight thousand employees in Vietnam. Acting as the role of sales and marketing officer, the author will critically review Horn and Brem’s (2013)  concept of innovation and analyse how it is applied in TH. Initially, according to Amabile (1983, 1998) and Amabile et al. (1996), innovation can be simplified as the successful implementation of new concept into organisations while Rogers (1998) defined innovation as an ongoing process with an aim to introduce new ideas for the purpose of maximizing firms’ performance . Moreover, as innovation management is becoming more crucial for business today, this concept has gone far more complex when variety of researchers put more efforts in proving the validity of their investigations, and in a broadest sense, innovation management can be described  1209780 20 th June, 2014   3 as various forms of organizational management activities over time where change is unprecedented from the antecedent period (Hargrave and Van de Ven, 2006; Van de Ven & Poole, 1995). Hence, the types of innovation are also classified in divergent ways based on different perspectives. As mentioned by OECD (2005), the types of innovation include product, process, marketing and organisations where product innovation occurs when firms introduce significantly improved products or services with respect of intended uses; process innovation refers to the introduction of the new approach of manufacturing new products or delivery methods; marketing innovation is the states when firms change exponentially distribution channel, prices or packaging…; an d organizational innovation is the application of new structural approaches in business for the purpose of increasing employees’ satisfaction, maximising work performance or reducing operation cost… (OECD, 2008, pp. 225). On agreeing with OECD (2008), Bessan and Tidd (2007) also mentioned product and process innovation in the categories, however marketing and organizational innovation are replaced by similar terms, namely position and paradigm innovation. In regard with the intensity of innovation, Utterback and Abernathy (1975), Tushman and Anerson (1986), and  Anderson and Tushman (1990) suggest that there are three levels including incremental innovation which creates slight changes in business models or firms’ technologies; breakthrough innovation which makes exponential changes in technologies or organisational performance; and radical innovation which combine both technology and business models to create brand new industries with high customers’ needs and significant growth.  1209780 20 th June, 2014   4 Reference Tushman, M. and Nadle, D. (1986), Organising for Innovation, California Management Review  , Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 74  –  92. Tushman, M. L. and Anderson, P. (1986), Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments,  Administrative Science Quarterly  . Vol. 31, pp. 439  –  465. Utterback, J. M. and Abernathy, W. J. (1975), A Dynamic Model Of Process And Product Innovation, the International Journal of Management Science . Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 639  –  656.  Anderson, P. and Tushman, M. L. (1990), Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: a Cyclical Model of Technological Change,  Administrative Science Quarterly  , Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 604  –  633. Chesbrough, H., Birkinshaw, J. and Teubal, M. (2006), Introduction to the Research Policy 20th Anniversary Special Issue of the Publication of ‘Profiting from Innovation’ by David J. Teece”, Research Policy  , Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1091-1099.
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