Chapter 4: Jean Rousseau and John Locke This chapter C CCh hha aap ppt tte eer rr 4 44: :: J JJE EEA AAN NN R RRO OOU UUS SSS SSE EEA AAU UU Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  describe briefly who is Jean Jacque Rousseau  explain Rousseau‘s views on education  briefly describe who is Immanuel Kant  evaluate Kant‘s views on education Chapter Outline Who is Rousseau? His wor
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   Chapter 4: Jean Rousseau and John Locke CCChhhaaapppttteeer r r  444::: JJJEEEAAANNN RRROOOUUUSSSSSSEEEAAAUUU  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:    describe briefly who is Jean Jacque Rousseau    explain Rousseau ‘s views on education       briefly describe who is Immanuel Kant    evaluate Kant‘s  views on education Chapter Outline Who is Rousseau? His works Goals of education Curriculum Who is Locke? Goals of education Curriculum References Chapter 1: Philosophy & the Malaysian Philosophy of Education   Chapter 2: Socrates and Plato   Chapter 3: Al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina   Chapter 4 : Jean Rousseau and John Locke Chapter 5: Confucius and Mencius Chapter 6: Paulo Freire and Friedrich Froebel Chapter 7: John Dewey Chapter 8: Rabindranath Tagore and Vivekananda Chapter 9: Other Philosophical Traditions Preamble This chapter focuses on the views of two European philosophers: Jean Rousseau and John Locke.   Chapter 4: Jean Rousseau and John Locke WHO IS ROUSSEAU?   Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland on June, 28, 1712 and nine days after his birth his mother died of birth complications. He was brought up by his father, a clockmaker who taught him ancient Greek and Roman literature. His father got into a quarrel with a French captain, and at the risk of imprisonment, he fled from Geneva and left Rousseau abandoned when he was ten. He was cared  by his uncle and an apprentice and then an engraver. Although he did not detest the work, he thought his master to be violent and tyrannical. At the age of 16, he left Geneva for Annecy where he met a French baroness named Francoise-Louise de Warens who was thirteen years older than Rousseau. The baroness, who became his lover, made it possible for Rousseau to receive the education of a nobleman. He studied the works of Aristotle, learned Latin and the dramatic arts. During this time he earned money through secretarial work, teaching and musical jobs. In 1742, he went to Paris to become a musician and composer and from there went to Venice to serve in the French Embassy. He returned to Paris and met a linen-maid named Therese Levasseur whom he married later. From the 1750s onwards, Rousseau published many works touching on politics, arts, sciences, economy and education. In 1756, Rousseau and Therese Levasseur left Paris after being invited to a h ouse in the country by Mme. D‘Epinay. His stay here lasted only a year and involved an affair with a woman named Sophie d‘Houdetot, the mistress of his friend Saint -Lambert. In 1757, after repeated quarrels with Mme. D‘Epinay and her other guests, Rousseau moved to lodgings near the country home of the Duke of Luxemburg at Montmorency. It was during this time that Rousseau wrote some of his most important works. In 1761 he published a novel,  Julie or the New Heloise , which was one of the best selling of the century. Then, just a year later in 1762, he published two major  philosophical treatises: The Social Contract   and  Emile . Paris authorities condemned  both of these books, primarily for claims Rousseau made in them about religion, which forced him to flee France. He settled in Switzerland and in 1764 he began writing his autobiography, his Confessions . A year later, after encountering difficulties with Swiss authorities, he spent time in Berlin and Paris, and eventually moved to England at the invitation of David Hume. However, due to quarrels with Hume, his stay in England lasted only a year, and in 1767 he returned to the southeast of France incognito. After spending three years in the southeast, Rousseau returned to Paris in 1770 and copied music for a living. It was during this time that he wrote  Rousseau: Judge of Jean-Jacques  and the  Reveries of the Solitary Walker  , which would turn out to be Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78)   Chapter 4: Jean Rousseau and John Locke his final works. He died on July 3, 1778. His Confessions  were published several years after his death; and his later political writings, in the nineteenth century. HIS WORKS In 1750 he published the Discourse on the Arts and Sciences  , a response to the question, “Has the restoration of the sciences and arts tended to purify morals?”  The writing consisted of two parts called  First Discourse  and Second  Discourse . The following is a summary of his answer to the question:    He argued that in societies where the arts and science flourished, morality and virtue declined. For example, in ancient Egypt and Greece, the flourishing of arts and science led to luxury and leisure  which led to the downfall of these societies. Similarly, China, acknowledged for its high level of learning suffered terribly from its vices.    He argued that while the sciences have made our lives easier and more pleasurable, it fails to contribute anything positive to morality.  Scientific knowledge such as the relationship between the body and the mind, the orbit of the planets and the law of physics fail to provide any guidance for making  people more virtuous citizens.    With regards to the arts, he argued that the creators of the arts were more interested in wanting to be praised and acknowledge as superior to others. Hence, society tended to emphasise talents rather than virtues such as courage, generosity and temperance (self-control or restraint).    However, Rousseau praised the writer Bacon, the philosopher Descartes and the scientist Newton. Despite being men of genius, they were able to avoid corruption. In 1753 he published the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men    in response to the question “What is the srcin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by the natural law?”  The following is a summary of his answer to the question:    He argued that to understand human nature, one will have to examine ―man in his natural state‖, uncorrupted by civilisation and the socialisation process. 4.1 ACTIVITY  Trace the life of Rousseau from his birth in 1712 until his death in 1778.   Chapter 4: Jean Rousseau and John Locke    He described ―natural man‖ as isolated, timid , peaceful, mute and without foresight to worry about what the future will bring.    The two principles that guide human actions are: Self-Interest and Pity. o   Self-interest motivates human to do certain things such as kill animals for food o   Pity is an innate dislike to see his fellowman suffer.    Rousseau was criticised for depicting humans as similar to animals. He argued that humans are different because they have the power of reasoning. However, the power of reasoning is not yet developed in man in the natural state.    Rousseau was also criticised for suggesting that we humans should return to the state of nature. He replied that he is not advocating a return the natural state. He is not suggesting that humans in the natural states are good and humans in civil society are bad. Human beings in the natural state are amoral individual, neither virtuous nor vicious (brutal or violent). Even after leaving the natural state and moving towards the civilised society, humans can express goodness and morality.    Stages in the progressions from a natural state to present day civil society: o   Pure State of Nature    –   Humans organise themselves into temporary groups to perform specific tasks such as hunting an animal. Language is basic in the form of grunts and gestures. The groups that were formed long enough for the specific task and broke up when it was over. o   Permanent Relationships    –   This stage sees the formation of the family unit, ownership of property and competition. According to Rousseau, the development of man at this stage does not lead to the level of causing pain and inequality, like that found in present day society. He argued that if human remained in this state, they would have been happy as most of the tasks can be done individually. o   Division of Labour    –   At this stage, agriculture and metallurgy were introduced which required a division of labour. Some people were  better suited to do certain types of physical tasks while others assigned the task of making tools. Still others became supervisors and the task of governing society. Soon strict class distinctions developed, ownership of property and wealth which created conflict. Those in  power, to keep their power convinced those with less power that it was in their self-interest to accept the status quo.    Conclusion: Rousseau‘s  basic argument is that humans are by nature  peaceful, contented and equal. It is socialisation and the progression to a civil society that has produced inequality, competition and the egoistic mentality.      1761 he published a novel,  Julie or the New Heloise , which was one of the best selling of the century.    In April, 1762, he published a definitive work on political philosophy, The Social Contract   


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